Any substance that bonds materials may be considered a cement. There are many types of cements. In construction, however, the term cement generally refers to bonding agents that are mixed with water or other liquid, or both, to produce a cementing paste.Initially,a mass of particles coated with the paste is in a plastic state and may be formed, or molded, into various shapes. Such a mixture may be considered a cementitious material because it can bond other materials together. After a time, due to chemical reactions, the paste sets and the mass hardens. When the particles consist of ﬁne aggregate (sand), mortar is formed. When the particles consist of ﬁne and coarse aggregates, concrete results.
Cementitious materials may be classiﬁed in several different ways. One way often used is by the chemical constituent responsible for setting or hardening the cement.Silicate and aluminate cements,in which the setting agents are calcium silicates and aluminates, are the most widely used types. Limes, wherein the hardening is due to the conversion of hydroxides to carbonates, were formerly widely used as the sole cementitious material, but their slow setting and hardening are not compatible with modern requirements.
Hence, their principal function today is to plasticize the otherwise harsh cements and add resilience to mortars and stuccoes. Use of limes is beneﬁcial in that their slow setting promotes healing, the recementing of hairline cracks. Another class of cements is composed of calcined gypsum and its related products. The gypsum cements are widely used in interior plaster and for fabrication of boards and blocks; but the solubility of gypsum prevents its use in construction exposed to any but extremely dry climates.
Oxychloride cements constitute a class of specialty cements of unusual properties. Their cost prohibits their general use in competition with the cheaper cements; but for special uses, such as the production of spark proof ﬂoors, they cannot be equaled. Masonry cements or mortar cements are widely used because of their convenience. While they are, in general, mixtures of one or more of the above mentioned cements with some admixtures, they deserve special consideration because of their economies.
Other cementitious materials, such as polymers, ﬂy ash, and silica fume, may be used as a cement replacement in concrete. Polymers are plastics with long-chain molecules. Concretes made with them have many qualities much superior to those of ordinary concrete. Silica fume, also known as microsilica, is a waste product of electric-arc furnaces. The silica reacts with lime in concrete to form a cementitious material. A fume particle has a diameter only 1% of that of a cement particle.
Particles that become a bonding agent when mixed with water are referred to as hydraulic cements. The most widely used cements in construction are portland cements, which are made by blending a mixture of calcareous (lime-containing) materials and argillaceous (clayey) materials. The raw materials are carefully proportioned to provide the desired amounts of lime, silica, aluminum oxide, and iron oxide. After grinding to facilitate burning, the raw materials are fed into a long rotary kiln, which is maintained at a temperature around 2700 8F. The raw materials, burned together, react chemically to form hard, walnut-sized pellets of a new material, clinker. The clinker, after discharge from the kiln and cooling, is ground to a ﬁne powder (not less than 1600 cm2/g speciﬁc surface).
During this grinding process, a retarder (usually a few percent of gypsum) is added to control the rate of setting when the cement is eventually hydrated. The resulting ﬁne powder is portland cement. Four compounds, however, make up more than 90% of portland cement, by weight; tricalcium silicate (C3S), dicalcium silicate (C2S), tricalcium aluminate (C3A), and tetracalcium aluminoferrite (C4AF). Each of these four compounds is identiﬁable in the highly magniﬁed micro structure of portland cement clinker,and each has characteristic properties that it contributes to the ﬁnal mixture.