Admixtures are anything other than portland cement, water, and aggregates that is added to a concrete mix to modify its properties. Included in this deﬁnition are chemical admixtures (ASTM C494 and C260), mineral admixtures such as ﬂy ash (C618) and silica fume, corrosion inhibitors, colors, ﬁbers, and miscellaneous (pumping aids, damp prooﬁng, gas-forming, permeability-reducing agents). Many concrete admixtures are available to modify, improve, or give special properties to concrete mixtures….
Admixtures should be used only when they offer a needed improvement not economically attainable by adjusting the basic mixture. Since improvement of one characteristic often results in an adverse effect on other characteristics, admixtures must be used with care. Chemical admixtures used in concrete generally serve as water reducers, accelerators, set retarders, or a combination. ASTM C494, “Standard Speciﬁcation for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete,” contains the following classiﬁcations shown in TABLE. High-range admixtures reduce the amount of water needed to produce a concrete of a speciﬁc consistency by 12% or more.
Water-reducing admixtures decrease water requirements for a concrete mix by chemically reacting with early hydration products to form a mono molecular layer at the cement-water interface that lubricates the mix and exposes more cement particles for hydration. The Type A admixture allows the amount of mixing water to be reduced while maintaining the same mix slump. If the amount of water is not reduced, the admixture will increase the slump of the mix and also strength of the concrete because more of the cement surface area will be exposed for hydration. Similar effects occur for Type D and E admixtures.
Typically, a reduction in mixing water of 5 to 10% can be expected. Type F and G admixtures are used to achieve high-workability. A mix without an admixture typically has a slump of 2 to 3 in. After the admixture is added, the slump may be in the range of 8 to 10 in without segregation of mix components. These admixtures are especially useful for mixes with a low water-cement ratio. Their 12 to 30% reduction in water allows a corresponding reduction in cement. The water-reducing admixtures are commonly manufactured from lignosulfonic acids and their salts, hydroxylated carboxylic acids and their salts, or polymers of derivatives of melamines or naphthalenes or sulfonated hydrocarbons.
The combination of admixtures used in a concrete mix should be carefully evaluated and tested to ensure that the desired properties are achieved. Super plasticizers are high-range water-reducing admixtures that meet the requirements of ASTM C494 Type F or G. They are often used to achieve high-strength concrete from mixes with a low water-cement ratio with good workability and low segregation.
They also may be used to produce concrete of speciﬁed strengths with less cement at constant water-cement ratio. And they may be used to produce self-compacting, self-leveling ﬂowing concretes, for such applications as long-distance pumping of concrete from mixer to formwork or placing concrete in forms congested with reinforcing steel. For these concretes, the cement content or water-cement ratio is not reduced, but the slump is increased substantially without causing segregation. For example, an initial slump of 3 to 4 in for an ordinary concrete mix may be increased to 7 to 8 in without addition of water and decrease in strength.
Superplasticizers may be classiﬁed as sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde condensates, sulfonated naphthaline-formaldehyde condensates, modiﬁed lignosulfonates, or synthetic polymers,Air-entraining agents increase the resistance of concrete to frost action by introducing numerous tiny air bubbles into the hardened cement paste. These bubbles act as stress relievers for stresses induced by freezing and thawing. Air-entraining agents are usually composed of detergents.
In addition to increasing durability of the hardened cement, they also decrease the amount of water required and increase the workability of the mix. Air contents are usually controlled to between 2 and 6%. Because air-entrained concrete bleeds less than non-air-entrained concrete, fewer capillaries extend from the concrete matrix to the surface. Therefore, there are fewer avenues available for ingress of aggressive chemicals into the concrete. The “Standard Speciﬁcation for Air-Entraining Admixtures for Concrete,” ASTM C260, covers materials for use of air-entraining admixtures to be added to concrete in the ﬁeld. Air entrainment may also be achieved by use of Types IIA and IIIA portland cements.
Set-accelerating admixtures are used to decrease the time from the start of addition of water to cement to initial set and to increase the rate of strength gain of concrete. The most commonly used set-accelerating admixture is calcium chloride. Calcium chloride offers advantages in cold weather concreting by speeding the set at low temperature and reducing the time that protection is necessary.
When used in usual amounts (less than 2% by weight of cement), however, it does not act as an antifreeze agent by lowering the freezing point. When 2% calcium chloride is used under normal conditions, it reduces the initial set time from 3 to 1 h and the ﬁnal set time from 6 to 2 h, and at 708 F it doubles the 1-day strength. Use of calcium chloride as an admixture improves workability, reduces bleeding, and results in a more durable concrete surface. Problems in its use may arise from impairment of volume stability (drying shrinkage may be increased as much as 50%) and an increase in the rate of heat liberation. Chloride ions can also contribute to corrosion of steel embedded in concrete. Limits on chloride ion concentration may be as low as 0.04% of the weight of the concrete. Retarding admixtures are used to retard the initial set of concrete. A Type B or D admixture will allow transport of concrete for a longer time before initial set occurs. Final set also is delayed.
Hence,precautions should be taken if retarded concrete is to be used in walls. Depending on the dosage and type of base chemicals in the admixture, initial set can be retarded for several hours to several days. A beneﬁcial side effect of retardation of initial and ﬁnal sets is an increase in the compressive strength of the concrete. A commonly used Type D admixture provides higher 7- and 28-day strengths than a Type A when used in the same mix design. Mineral admixtures include ﬂy ashes, pozzolans, and micro silicates. Natural cement is sometimes used as an admixture. Corrosion inhibitors are sometimes added to a concrete mix to protect reinforcing steel. The steel usually is protected against corrosion by the high alkalinity of the concrete, which creates a passivating layer at the steel surface.This layer is composed of ferric oxide, a stable compound. Within and at the surface of the ferric oxide, however, are ferrous oxide compounds, which are more reactive. When the ferrous-oxide compounds come into contact with aggressive substances, such as chloride ions, they react with oxygen to form solid, iron oxide corrosion products.
These produce a fourfold increase in volume and create an expansion force greater than the concrete tensile strength. The result is deterioration of the concrete. To inhibit corrosion, calcium nitrite admixtures may be added to the concrete mix. They do not create a physical barrier to chloride ion ingress. Instead, they modify the chemistry at the steel surface. The nitrite ions oxidize ferrous oxide present, converting it to ferric oxide. The nitrite is also absorbed at the steel surface and fortiﬁes the ferric oxide passivating layer.
For a calcium nitrite admixture to be effective, the dosage should be adjusted in accordance with the exposure of the concrete to corrosive agents. The greater the exposure, the larger should be the dosage. Internal-barrier admixtures may be a waterprooﬁng or a damp prooﬁng compound or an agent that creates an organic ﬁlm around the reinforcing steel, supplementing the passivating layer. The latter type of admixture may be added at a ﬁxed rate regardless of expected chloride exposure.
Damp prooﬁng admixtures include soaps, stearates, and other petroleum products. They are intended to reduce passage of water and water vapor through concrete. Caution should be exercised when using these materials inasmuch as they may increase water demand for the mix, thus increasing the permeability of the concrete. If dense, low-permeability concrete is desired, the water-cement ratio should be kept to a maximum of 0.50 and the concrete should be well vibrated and damp cured. Permeability of concrete can be decreased by the use of ﬂy ash and silica fume as admixtures.
Also, use of a high-range water-reducing admixture and a water-cement ratio less than 0.50 will greatly reduce permeability. Gas-forming admixtures are used to form lightweight concrete. They are also used in masonry grout where it is desirable for the grout to expand and bond to the concrete masonry unit. They are typically an aluminum powder. Pumping aids are used to decrease the viscosity of harsh or marginally pump able mixes. Organic and synthetic polymers, ﬂy ash, bentonite, or hydrated lime may be used for this purpose. Results depend on concrete mix, including the effects of increased water demand and the potential for lower strength resulting from the increased water-cement ratio. If sand makes the mix marginally pump able, ﬂy ash is the preferred pumping additive. It generally will not increase the water demand and it will react with the calcium hydroxide in cement to provide some strength increase.
Coloring admixtures may be mineral oxides or manufactured pigments. Coloring requires careful control of materials, batching, and water addition in order to maintain a consistent color at the job site. Note that raw carbon black, commonly used for black color, greatly reduces the amount of entrained air in a mix. Therefore, if black concrete is desired for concrete requiring air-entrainment (for freeze-thaw or aggressive chemical exposure), either the carbon black should be modiﬁed to entrain air or an additional air-entraining agent may be incorporated in the mix. The mix design should be tested under ﬁeld conditions prior to its use in construction.