An electrophysiological investigation on the emotion regulatory mechanisms of brief open monitoring meditation in novice non-meditators


  • 1.

    Gethin, R. On some definitions of mindfulness. Contemp. Buddhism 12, 263–279 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 2.

    Baer, R. A. Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 10, 125–143 (2003).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 3.

    Brown, K. W. & Ryan, R. M. The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 84, 822–848 (2003).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 4.

    Keng, S.-L., Smoski, M. J. & Robins, C. J. Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: a review of empirical studies. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 1041–1056 (2011).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 5.

    Shapiro, S. L. & Carlson, L. E. The Art and Science of Mindfulness: Integrating Mindfulness into Psychology and the Helping Professions Vol. 9, 194 (American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 2009). https://doi.org/10.1037/11885-000.


    Google Scholar
     

  • 6.

    Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D. & Davidson, R. J. Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends Cogn. Sci. 12, 163–169 (2008).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 7.

    Chambers, R., Gullone, E. & Allen, N. B. Mindful emotion regulation: an integrative review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 29, 560–572 (2009).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 8.

    Gross, J. J. The emerging field of emotion regulation: an integrative review. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 2, 271 (1998).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 9.

    Gross, J. J. & Thompson, R. A. Emotion Regulation: Conceptual Foundations. In Handbook of Emotion Regulation 3–24 (The Guilford Press, 2007).

  • 10.

    Sheppes, G. & Gross, J. J. Is timing everything? Temporal considerations in emotion regulation. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Rev. Off. J. Soc. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Inc 15, 319–331 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 11.

    Vago, D. R. & Silbersweig, D. A. Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): a framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 296 (2012).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 12.

    Van Dam, N. T. et al. Mind the hype: a critical evaluation and prescriptive agenda for research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 13, 36–61 (2018).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 13.

    Kabat-Zinn, J. Full Catastrophe Living : Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness. (Pub. by Dell Publishing, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Pub. Group, 1991).

  • 14.

    Tang, Y.-Y. et al. Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. PNAS Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 17152–17156 (2007).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 15.

    Grabovac, A. D., Lau, M. A. & Willett, B. R. Mechanisms of mindfulness: a Buddhist psychological model. Mindfulness 2, 154–166 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 16.

    Guendelman, S., Medeiros, S. & Rampes, H. Mindfulness and emotion regulation: insights from neurobiological, psychological, and clinical studies. Front. Psychol. 8, 220 (2017).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 17.

    Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A. & Freedman, B. Mechanisms of mindfulness. J. Clin. Psychol. 62, 373–386 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 18.

    Jankowski, T. & Holas, P. Metacognitive model of mindfulness. Conscious. Cogn. 28, 64–80 (2014).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 19.

    Lin, Y., Callahan, C. P. & Moser, J. S. A mind full of self: Self-referential processing as a mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of mindfulness training on internalizing disorders. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 92, 172–186 (2018).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 20.

    Treanor, M. The potential impact of mindfulness on exposure and extinction learning in anxiety disorders. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 617–625 (2011).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 21.

    Nila, K., Holt, D. V., Ditzen, B. & Aguilar-Raab, C. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) enhances distress tolerance and resilience through changes in mindfulness. Ment. Health Prev. 4, 36–41 (2016).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 22.

    Sedlmeier, P. et al. The psychological effects of meditation: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 138, 1139–1171 (2012).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 23.

    Eberth, J. & Sedlmeier, P. The effects of mindfulness meditation: a meta-analysis. Mindfulness 3, 174–189 (2012).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 24.

    Broderick, P. C. Mindfulness and coping with dysphoric mood: contrasts with rumination and distraction. Cogn. Ther. Res. 29, 501–510 (2005).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 25.

    Arch, J. J. & Craske, M. G. Mechanisms of mindfulness: emotion regulation following a focused breathing induction. Behav. Res. Ther. 44, 1849–1858 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 26.

    Erisman, S. M. & Roemer, L. A preliminary investigation of the effects of experimentally induced mindfulness on emotional responding to film clips. Emot. Wash. DC 10, 72–82 (2010).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 27.

    Robins, C. J., Keng, S.-L., Ekblad, A. G. & Brantley, J. G. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experience and expression: a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Psychol. 68, 117–131 (2012).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 28.

    Ortner, C. N. M., Kilner, S. J. & Zelazo, P. D. Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motiv. Emot. 31, 271–283 (2007).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 29.

    Gross, J. J. & Muñoz, R. F. Emotion regulation and mental health. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Pract. 2, 151–164 (1995).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 30.

    Goldin, P. R. & Gross, J. J. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emot. Wash. DC 10, 83–91 (2010).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 31.

    Allen, M. et al. Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. J. Neurosci. 32, 15601–15610 (2012).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 32.

    Desbordes, G. et al. Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 292 (2012).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 33.

    Lutz, J. et al. Mindfulness and emotion regulation—an fMRI study. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 9, 776–785 (2014).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 34.

    Holzel, B. K. et al. Mindfulness practice leads to increase in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res. Neuroimaging 191, 36–43 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 35.

    Tang, Y.-Y., Hölzel, B. K. & Posner, M. I. The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 16, 213–225 (2015).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 36.

    Ochsner, K. N. et al. For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion. NeuroImage 23, 483–499 (2004).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 37.

    Banks, S. J., Eddy, K. T., Angstadt, M., Nathan, P. J. & Phan, K. L. Amygdala-frontal connectivity during emotion regulation. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 2, 303–312 (2007).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 38.

    Opialla, S. et al. Neural circuits of emotion regulation: a comparison of mindfulness-based and cognitive reappraisal strategies. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 265, 45–55 (2015).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 39.

    Hölzel, B. K. et al. Neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in generalized anxiety disorder following mindfulness training. NeuroImage Clin. 2, 448–458 (2013).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 40.

    Taylor, V. A. et al. Impact of mindfulness on the neural responses to emotional pictures in experienced and beginner meditators. NeuroImage 57, 1524–1533 (2011).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 41.

    Schupp, H. T., Flaisch, T., Stockburger, J. & Junghöfer, M. Emotion and attention: event-related brain potential studies. Prog. Brain Res. 156, 31–51 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 42.

    Hajcak, G., Weinberg, A., MacNamara, A. & Foti, D. ERPs and the Study of Emotion. The Oxford Handbook of Event-Related Potential Components https://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195374148.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780195374148-e-016 (2011).

  • 43.

    Liu, Y., Huang, H., McGinnis-Deweese, M., Keil, A. & Ding, M. Neural substrate of the late positive potential in emotional processing. J. Neurosci. 32, 14563–14572 (2012).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 44.

    Foti, D. & Hajcak, G. Deconstructing reappraisal: descriptions preceding arousing pictures modulate the subsequent neural response. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 20, 977–988 (2008).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 45.

    Macnamara, A., Foti, D. & Hajcak, G. Tell me about it: neural activity elicited by emotional pictures and preceding descriptions. Emot. Wash. DC 9, 531–543 (2009).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 46.

    Moser, J. S., Hajcak, G., Bukay, E. & Simons, R. F. Intentional modulation of emotional responding to unpleasant pictures: an ERP study. Psychophysiology 43, 292–296 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 47.

    Moser, J. S., Krompinger, J. W., Dietz, J. & Simons, R. F. Electrophysiological correlates of decreasing and increasing emotional responses to unpleasant pictures. Psychophysiology 46, 17–27 (2009).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 48.

    Thiruchselvam, R., Blechert, J., Sheppes, G., Rydstrom, A. & Gross, J. J. The temporal dynamics of emotion regulation: an EEG study of distraction and reappraisal. Biol. Psychol. 87, 84–92 (2011).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 49.

    Hajcak, G. & Nieuwenhuis, S. Reappraisal modulates the electrocortical response to unpleasant pictures. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 6, 291–297 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 50.

    Sobolewski, A., Holt, E., Kublik, E. & Wróbel, A. Impact of meditation on emotional processing—a visual ERP study. Neurosci. Res. 71, 44–48 (2011).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 51.

    Brown, K. W., Goodman, R. J. & Inzlicht, M. Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 93–99 (2013).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 52.

    Lin, Y., Fisher, M. E., Roberts, S. M. M. & Moser, J. S. Deconstructing the emotion regulatory properties of mindfulness: an electrophysiological investigation. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10, 451 (2016).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 53.

    Davidson, R. J. Affective style and affective disorders: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Cogn. Emot. 12, 307–330 (1998).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 54.

    Davidson, R. J. Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. Am. Psychol. 55, 1196–1214 (2000).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 55.

    Slagter, H. A., Davidson, R. J. & Lutz, A. Mental training as a tool in the neuroscientific study of brain and cognitive plasticity. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 5, 1–12 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 56.

    Gyurak, A., Goodkind, M. S., Kramer, J. H., Miller, B. L. & Levenson, R. W. Executive functions and the down-regulation and up-regulation of emotion. Cogn. Emot. 26, 103–118 (2012).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 57.

    Cahn, B. R. & Polich, J. Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol. Bull. 132, 180–211 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 58.

    Lomas, T., Ivtzan, I. & Fu, C. H. Y. A systematic review of the neurophysiology of mindfulness on EEG oscillations. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 57, 401–410 (2015).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 59.

    Cooper, N. R., Croft, R. J., Dominey, S. J. J., Burgess, A. P. & Gruzelier, J. H. Paradox lost? Exploring the role of alpha oscillations during externally vs. internally directed attention and the implications for idling and inhibition hypotheses. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol. 47, 65–74 (2003).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 60.

    Ray, W. J. & Cole, H. W. EEG activity during cognitive processing: influence of attentional factors. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 3, 43–48 (1985).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 61.

    Shaw, J. C. Intention as a component of the alpha-rhythm response to mental activity. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 24, 7–23 (1996).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 62.

    Jensen, O., Gelfand, J., Kounios, J. & Lisman, J. E. Oscillations in the alpha band (9–12 Hz) increase with memory load during retention in a short-term memory task. Cereb. Cortex N. Y. N 1991(12), 877–882 (2002).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 63.

    Cooper, N. R., Burgess, A. P., Croft, R. J. & Gruzelier, J. H. Investigating evoked and induced electroencephalogram activity in task-related alpha power increases during an internally directed attention task. NeuroReport 17, 205–208 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 64.

    Larson-Prior, L. J. et al. Modulation of the brain’s functional network architecture in the transition from wake to sleep. Prog. Brain Res. 193, 277–294 (2011).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 65.

    Ishii, R. et al. Medial prefrontal cortex generates frontal midline theta rhythm. NeuroReport 10, 675–679 (1999).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 66.

    Dietl, T., Dirlich, G., Vogl, L., Lechner, C. & Strian, F. Orienting response and frontal midline theta activity: a somatosensory spectral perturbation study. Clin. Neurophysiol. Off. J. Int. Fed. Clin. Neurophysiol. 110, 1204–1209 (1999).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 67.

    Klimesch, W. EEG-alpha rhythms and memory processes. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol. 26, 319–340 (1997).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 68.

    Cavanagh, J. F., Cohen, M. X. & Allen, J. J. B. Prelude to and resolution of an error: EEG phase synchrony reveals cognitive control dynamics during action monitoring. J. Neurosci. Off. J. Soc. Neurosci. 29, 98–105 (2009).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 69.

    Gunaratana, H. Mindfulness in Plain English (Wisdom Publications, Boston, 2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 70.

    Lutz, A., Jha, A. P., Dunne, J. D. & Saron, C. D. Investigating the phenomenological matrix of mindfulness-related practices from a neurocognitive perspective. Am. Psychol. 70, 632–658 (2015).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 71.

    Britton, W. B. et al. Dismantling mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: creation and validation of 8-week focused attention and open monitoring interventions within a 3-armed randomized controlled trial. Behav. Res. Ther. 101, 92–107 (2018).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 72.

    Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M., Sabatinelli, D. & Lang, P. J. Emotion and motivation II: sex differences in picture processing. Emot. Wash. DC 1, 300–319 (2001).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 73.

    Syrjänen, E. & Wiens, S. Gender moderates valence effects on the late positive potential to emotional distracters. Neurosci. Lett. 551, 89–93 (2013).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 74.

    McRae, K., Ochsner, K. N., Mauss, I. B., Gabrieli, J. J. D. & Gross, J. J. Gender differences in emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal. Group Process Intergroup Relat. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430207088035 (2008).

    Article 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 75.

    Augustine, A. A. & Hemenover, S. H. On the relative effectiveness of affect regulation strategies: a meta-analysis. Cogn. Emot. 23, 1181–1220 (2009).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 76.

    Webb, T. L., Miles, E. & Sheeran, P. Dealing with feeling: a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation. Psychol. Bull. 138, 775–808 (2012).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 77.

    de Vibe, M. et al. Mindfulness training for stress management: a randomised controlled study of medical and psychology students. BMC Med. Educ. 13, 107 (2013).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 78.

    Luders, E., Thompson, P. M. & Kurth, F. Larger hippocampal dimensions in meditation practitioners: differential effects in women and men. Front. Psychol. 6, 186 (2015).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 79.

    Rojiani, R., Santoyo, J. F., Rahrig, H., Roth, H. D. & Britton, W. B. Women benefit more than men in response to college-based meditation training. Front. Psychol. 8, 551 (2017).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 80.

    Seedat, S. et al. Cross-national associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 66, 785–795 (2009).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 81.

    McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T. & Hofmann, S. G. Gender differences in anxiety disorders: prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. J. Psychiatr. Res. 45, 1027–1035 (2011).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 82.

    Barnes, P. M., Bloom, B. & Nahin, R. L. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Natl. Health Stat. Rep. 1–23 (2008).

  • 83.

    Moran, T. P., Jendrusina, A. A. & Moser, J. S. The psychometric properties of the late positive potential during emotion processing and regulation. Brain Res. 1516, 66–75 (2013).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 84.

    Barry, R. J., Clarke, A. R., Johnstone, S. J., Magee, C. A. & Rushby, J. A. EEG differences between eyes-closed and eyes-open resting conditions. Clin. Neurophysiol. Off. J. Int. Fed. Clin. Neurophysiol. 118, 2765–2773 (2007).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 85.

    Lin, Y., Eckerle, W. D., Peng, L. W. & Moser, J. S. On Variation in mindfulness training: a multimodal study of brief open monitoring meditation on error monitoring. Brain Sci. 9, 226 (2019).

    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 86.

    Hickman, S. 20-Minute Seated Meditation.

  • 87.

    Perlman, D. M., Salomons, T. V., Davidson, R. J. & Lutz, A. Differential effects on pain intensity and unpleasantness of two meditation practices. Emot. Wash. DC 10, 65–71 (2010).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 88.

    Fox, K. C. R. et al. Functional neuroanatomy of meditation: a review and meta-analysis of 78 functional neuroimaging investigations. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 65, 208–228 (2016).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 89.

    Lonsdale, C. How to Learn any Language in Six Months.

  • 90.

    Lang, P. J., Bradley, M. M. & Cuthbert, B. N. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (2008).

  • 91.

    Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J. & Toney, L. Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment 13, 27–45 (2006).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 92.

    Watson, D., Clark, L. A. & Tellegen, A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 54, 1063–1070 (1988).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 93.

    Crawford, J. R. & Henry, J. D. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS): construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample. Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 43, 245–265 (2004).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 94.

    Britton, W. B., Lindahl, J. R., Cahn, B. R., Davis, J. H. & Goldman, R. E. Awakening is not a metaphor: the effects of Buddhist meditation practices on basic wakefulness. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1307, 64–81 (2014).

    ADS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 95.

    Hoddes, E., Dement, W. & Zarcone, V. The development and use of the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS). Psychophysiology 9, 150 (1972).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 96.

    Lin, Y., Fisher, M. E. & Moser, J. S. Clarifying the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention: a combined behavioral and neurophysiological study. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 14, 205–215 (2018).

    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 97.

    Gratton, G., Coles, M. G. & Donchin, E. A new method for off-line removal of ocular artifact. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 55, 468–484 (1983).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 98.

    Lagopoulos, J. et al. Increased theta and alpha EEG activity during nondirective meditation. J. Altern. Complement. Med. N. Y. N 15, 1187–1192 (2009).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 99.

    Moser, J. S., Hartwig, R., Moran, T. P., Jendrusina, A. A. & Kross, E. Neural markers of positive reappraisal and their associations with trait reappraisal and worry. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 123, 91–105 (2014).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 100.

    Keil, A. et al. Committee report: Publication guidelines and recommendations for studies using electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography: guidelines for EEG and MEG. Psychophysiology 51, 1–21 (2014).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 101.

    Aftanas, L. I. & Golocheikine, S. A. Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally positive state and internalized attention: high-resolution EEG investigation of meditation. Neurosci. Lett. 310, 57–60 (2001).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 102.

    Ahani, A. et al. Quantitative change of EEG and respiration signals during mindfulness meditation. J. NeuroEngineering Rehabil. 11, 87 (2014).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 103.

    Takahashi, T. et al. Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with personality traits. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol. 55, 199–207 (2005).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 104.

    Yu, X. et al. Activation of the anterior prefrontal cortex and serotonergic system is associated with improvements in mood and EEG changes induced by Zen meditation practice in novices. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol. 80, 103–111 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 105.

    Kubota, Y. et al. Frontal midline theta rhythm is correlated with cardiac autonomic activities during the performance of an attention demanding meditation procedure. Brain Res. Cogn. Brain Res. 11, 281–287 (2001).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 106.

    Chan, A. S., Han, Y. M. Y. & Cheung, M.-C. Electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of mindfulness-based Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique: a pilot study. Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback 33, 39–47 (2008).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 107.

    Eddy, M. D., Brunyé, T. T., Tower-Richardi, S., Mahoney, C. R. & Taylor, H. A. The effect of a brief mindfulness induction on processing of emotional images: an ERP study. Front. Psychol. 6, 1391 (2015).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 108.

    Balconi, M. & Mazza, G. Brain oscillations and BIS/BAS (behavioral inhibition/activation system) effects on processing masked emotional cues. ERS/ERD and coherence measures of alpha band. Int. J. Psychophysiol. Off. J. Int. Organ. Psychophysiol. 74, 158–165 (2009).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 109.

    Poole, B. D. & Gable, P. A. Affective motivational direction drives asymmetric frontal hemisphere activation. Exp. Brain Res. 232, 2121–2130 (2014).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 110.

    Strijkstra, A. M., Beersma, D. G. M., Drayer, B., Halbesma, N. & Daan, S. Subjective sleepiness correlates negatively with global alpha (8–12 Hz) and positively with central frontal theta (4–8 Hz) frequencies in the human resting awake electroencephalogram. Neurosci. Lett. 340, 17–20 (2003).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 111.

    Tang, Y.-Y., Tang, R., Rothbart, M. K. & Posner, M. I. Frontal theta activity and white matter plasticity following mindfulness meditation. Curr. Opin. Psychol. 28, 294–297 (2019).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 112.

    Davidson, R. J. & Kaszniak, A. W. Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation. Am. Psychol. 70, 581–592 (2015).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 113.

    Hölzel, B. K. et al. How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. J. Assoc. Psychol. Sci. 6, 537–559 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 114.

    Milz, P., Faber, P. L., Lehmann, D., Kochi, K. & Pascual-Marqui, R. D. sLORETA intracortical lagged coherence during breath counting in meditation-naïve participants. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8, 803 (2014).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 115.

    Tanaka, G. K. et al. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr. 72, 687–693 (2014).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 116.

    Baijal, S. & Srinivasan, N. Theta activity and meditative states: spectral changes during concentrative meditation. Cogn. Process. 11, 31–38 (2010).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 117.

    Lin, Y., Fisher, M. E. & Moser, J. S. Clarifying the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention: a combined behavioral and neurophysiological study. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 14, 205–215 (2019).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 118.

    Clayton, M. S., Yeung, N. & Cohen Kadosh, R. The roles of cortical oscillations in sustained attention. Trends Cogn. Sci. 19, 188–195 (2015).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 119.

    Lee, D. J., Kulubya, E., Goldin, P., Goodarzi, A. & Girgis, F. Review of the neural oscillations underlying meditation. Front. Neurosci. 12, 178 (2018).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 120.

    Lippelt, D. P., Hommel, B. & Colzato, L. S. Focused attention, open monitoring and loving kindness meditation: effects on attention, conflict monitoring, and creativity: a review. Front. Psychol. 5, 1083 (2014).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 121.

    Manna, A. et al. Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation. Brain Res. Bull. 82, 46–56 (2010).

    ADS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 122.

    Qin, J., Perdoni, C. & He, B. Dissociation of subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering by EEG rhythmic activity. PLoS ONE 6, e23124 (2011).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 123.

    Baldwin, C. L. et al. Detecting and quantifying mind wandering during simulated driving. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 11, 406 (2017).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 124.

    Compton, R. J., Gearinger, D. & Wild, H. The wandering mind oscillates: EEG alpha power is enhanced during moments of mind-wandering. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 19, 1184–1191 (2019).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 125.

    Jin, C. Y., Borst, J. P. & van Vugt, M. K. Predicting task-general mind-wandering with EEG. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 19, 1059–1073 (2019).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 126.

    Brandmeyer, T. & Delorme, A. Reduced mind wandering in experienced meditators and associated EEG correlates. Exp. Brain Res. 236, 2519–2528 (2018).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 127.

    Ahani, A. et al. Change in physiological signals during mindfulness meditation. Int. IEEEEMBS Conf. Neural Eng. Proc. Int. IEEE EMBS Conf. Neural Eng. https://doi.org/10.1109/NER.2013.6696199 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 128.

    Franzen, P. L., Siegle, G. J. & Buysse, D. J. Relationships between affect, vigilance, and sleepiness following sleep deprivation. J. Sleep Res. 17, 34–41 (2008).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 129.

    Lim, J. & Dinges, D. F. A meta-analysis of the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on cognitive variables. Psychol. Bull. 136, 375–389 (2010).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 130.

    Thomas, M. et al. Neural basis of alertness and cognitive performance impairments during sleepiness. I. Effects of 24 h of sleep deprivation on waking human regional brain activity. J. Sleep Res. 9, 335–352 (2000).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 131.

    Vgontzas, A. N. et al. Adverse effects of modest sleep restriction on sleepiness, performance, and inflammatory cytokines. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 89, 2119–2126 (2004).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 132.

    Olofsson, J. K., Nordin, S., Sequeira, H. & Polich, J. Affective picture processing: an integrative review of ERP findings. Biol. Psychol. 77, 247–265 (2008).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 133.

    Reva, N. V., Pavlov, S. V., Loktev, K. V., Korenyok, V. V. & Aftanas, L. I. Influence of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation practice on emotional processing in the brain: an ERP study. Neuroscience 281, 195–201 (2014).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 134.

    Codispoti, M., Ferrari, V. & Bradley, M. M. Repetitive picture processing: autonomic and cortical correlates. Brain Res. 1068, 213–220 (2006).

    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 135.

    Ferrari, V., Bradley, M. M., Codispoti, M. & Lang, P. J. Repetitive exposure: brain and reflex measures of emotion and attention. Psychophysiology 48, 515–522 (2011).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 136.

    Bing-Canar, H., Pizzuto, J. & Compton, R. J. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance. Psychophysiology 53, 1366–1376 (2016).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 137.

    Larson, M. J., Steffen, P. R. & Primosch, M. The impact of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention on cognitive control and error-related performance monitoring. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 308 (2013).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 138.

    Norris, C. J., Creem, D., Hendler, R. & Kober, H. Brief mindfulness meditation improves attention in novices: evidence from ERPS and moderation by neuroticism. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 12, 315 (2018).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 139.

    Saunders, B., Rodrigo, A. H. & Inzlicht, M. Mindful awareness of feelings increases neural performance monitoring. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 16, 93–105 (2016).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 140.

    Zhang, W., Ouyang, Y., Tang, F., Chen, J. & Li, H. Breath-focused mindfulness alters early and late components during emotion regulation. Brain Cogn. 135, 103585 (2019).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 141.

    Hajcak, G., MacNamara, A. & Olvet, D. M. Event-related potentials, emotion, and emotion regulation: an integrative review. Dev. Neuropsychol. 35, 129–155 (2010).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 142.

    Uusberg, H., Uusberg, A., Talpsep, T. & Paaver, M. Mechanisms of mindfulness: the dynamics of affective adaptation during open monitoring. Biol. Psychol. 118, 94–106 (2016).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 143.

    Wiswede, D., Münte, T. F., Goschke, T. & Rüsseler, J. Modulation of the error-related negativity by induction of short-term negative affect. Neuropsychologia 47, 83–90 (2009).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 144.

    Nigbur, R., Ivanova, G. & Stürmer, B. Theta power as a marker for cognitive interference. Clin. Neurophysiol. Off. J. Int. Fed. Clin. Neurophysiol. 122, 2185–2194 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 145.

    Davidson, R. J. & Dahl, C. J. Outstanding challenges in scientific research on mindfulness and meditation. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. J. Assoc. Psychol. Sci. 13, 62–65 (2018).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 146.

    Grossman, P. Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology’s (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. (2011). Psychol. Assess. 23, 1034–1040 (2011) (discussion 1041-6).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 147.

    Tee, J. L., Phang, S. K., Chew, W. J., Phang, S. W. & Mun, H. K. Classification of meditation states through EEG: a method using discrete wavelet transform. AIP Conf. Proc. 2233, 030010 (2020).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 148.

    Schoenberg, P. L. A., Ruf, A., Churchill, J., Brown, D. P. & Brewer, J. A. Mapping complex mind states: EEG neural substrates of meditative unified compassionate awareness. Conscious. Cogn. 57, 41–53 (2018).

    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 149.

    Kang, Y. et al. Gender differences in response to a school-based mindfulness training intervention for early adolescents. J. Sch. Psychol. 68, 163–176 (2018).

    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 150.

    Bodenlos, J. S., Strang, K., Gray-Bauer, R., Faherty, A. & Ashdown, B. K. Male representation in randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based therapies. Mindfulness 8, 259–265 (2017).


    Google Scholar
     



  • Source link

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *