Climate action requires new accounting guidance and governance frameworks to manage carbon in shelf seas


  • 1.

    Virto, L. R., Weber, J.-L. & Jeantil, M. Natural capital accounts and public policy decisions: findings from a survey. Ecol. Ec. 144, 244–259 (2018). This paper shows how institutional and practical obstacles limit uptake of natural capital accounts in real world policy decision making.


    Google Scholar
     

  • 2.

    United Nations. Framework convention on climate change adoption of the Paris Agreement. 21st Conference of the Parties (United Nations, Paris, 2015).

  • 3.

    Liénart, C. et al. Dynamics of particulate organic matter composition in coastal systems: forcing of spatio-temporal variability at multi-systems scale. Prog. Oceanogr. 162, 271–289 (2018).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 4.

    Pedrosa-Pàmies, R. et al. Composition and sources of sedimentary organic matter in the deep eastern Mediterranean Sea. Biogeosciences 12, 7379–7402 (2015).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 5.

    Van der Voort, T. S. et al. Deconvolving the fate of carbon in coastal sediments. Geophys. Res. Lett. 45, 4134–4142 (2018).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 6.

    da Silva Copertino, M. Add coastal vegetation to the climate critical list. Nature 473, 255 (2011).

  • 7.

    Cooley, S. R. et al. Overlooked ocean strategies to address climate change, Global Environ. Change 59, 101968 (2019).

  • 8.

    Avelar, S., van der Voort, T. S. & Eglinton, T. I. Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations. Carbon Balance Manag. 12, 10 (2017).

  • 9.

    Holt, J. et al. Prospects for improving the representation of coastal and shelf seas in global ocean models. Geosci. Model Dev. 10, 499–523 (2017).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 10.

    Ostrom, E., Gardner, R. & Walker, J. (eds). Rules, Games, and Common-Pool Resources (Univ. of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1994).

  • 11.

    Legge, O. et al. Carbon on the Northwest European Shelf: contemporary budget and future influences. Front. Mar. Sci. 7, 143 (2020). This paper presents a new budget synthesis of carbon cycling in the North Sea.

  • 12.

    IPCC. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon, S. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2007).

  • 13.

    Le Quéré, C. et al. Global carbon budget 2018. Earth Syst. Sci. Data https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-10-2141-2018 (2018).

  • 14.

    IPCC Summary for Policymakers. In Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Stocker, T. F. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2013).

  • 15.

    IPCC Summary for Policymakers. In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Edenhofer, O. R. et al.) (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 2014).

  • 16.

    IPCC. Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (eds Pörtner, H.-O. et al.) (2019).

  • 17.

    Burdige, D. J. The preservation of organic matter in marine sediments: controls, mechanisms and an imbalance in sediment organic carbon budgets? Chem. Rev. 107, 467–485 (2007). This is a major review of sediment organic carbon processing.

  • 18.

    Atwood, T. B., Witt, A., Mayorga, J., Hammill, E. & Sala, E. Global patterns in marine sediment carbon stocks. Front. Mar. Sci. 7, 1 (2020).

  • 19.

    Taillardat, P., Friess, D. & Lupascu, M. Mangrove blue carbon strategies for climate change mitigation are most effective at the national scale. Biol. Lett. 14, 20180251 (2018).

  • 20.

    Duarte, C. M., Dennison, W. C., Orth, R. J. & Carruthers, T. J. The charisma of coastal ecosystems: addressing the imbalance. Estuaries Coasts 31, 233–238 (2008).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 21.

    Duarte, C. et al. The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation. Nat. Clim. Change 3, 961–968 (2013).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 22.

    Pendleton, L. et al. Estimating global “blue carbon” emissions from conversion and degradation of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PLoS ONE 7, e43542 (2015).

  • 23.

    Otto, L. et al. Review of the physical oceanography of the North Sea. Neth. J. Sea Res. 26, 161–238 (1990).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 24.

    Simpson, J. H. & Sharples, J. Introduction to the Physical and Biological Oceanography of Shelf Seas, 413pp (Cambridge University Press, 2012).

  • 25.

    Soulsby, R. Dynamics of Marine Sands: A Manual for Practical Applications 249pp (Thomas Telford, 1997).

  • 26.

    Hill, A. E. et al. Thermohaline circulation of shallow tidal seas. Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL033459 (2008).

  • 27.

    Brown, J. et al. Observation of the physical structure and seasonal jet-like circulation of the Celtic Sea and St. George’s channel of the Irish. Cont. Shelf Res. 33, 353–361 (2003).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 28.

    Fernand, L. et al. The Irish coastal current: a seasonal jet-like circulation, Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 1775–1793 (2006).

  • 29.

    Bristow, L. A. et al. Tracing estuarine organic matter sources into the southern North Sea using C and N isotopic signatures. Biogeochemistry 113, 9–22 (2013).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 30.

    Huettel, M., Berg, P. & Kostka, J. E. Benthic exchange and biogeochemical cycling in permeable sediments. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 6, 23–51 (2014).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 31.

    Middelburg, J. J. Reviews and syntheses: to the bottom of carbon processing at the seafloor. Biogeosciences 15, 413–427 (2018).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 32.

    Couceiro, F. et al. Impact of resuspension of cohesive sediments at the Oyster Grounds (North Sea) on nutrient exchange across the sediment–water interface. Biogeochemistry 113, 37–52 (2013).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 33.

    Wilson, R. J., Speirs, D. C., Sabatino, A. & Heath, M. R. A synthetic map of the north-west European Shelf sedimentary environment for applications in marine science. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 10, 109–130 (2018).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 34.

    Bianchi, T. S., Blair, N., Burdige, D., Eglinton, T. I. & Galy, V. Centers of organic carbon burial at the land-ocean interface. Org. Geochem. 115, 138–155 (2018).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 35.

    Bauer, J. et al. The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean. Nature 504, 61–70 (2013).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 36.

    Sharples, J., Middelburg, J. J., Fennel, K. & Jickells, T. D. What proportion of riverine nutrients reaches the open ocean? Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 31, 39–58 (2017).

  • 37.

    Kao, S. J. et al. Preservation of terrestrial organic carbon in marine sediments offshore Taiwan: mountain building and atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestration. Earth Surf. Dyn. 2, 127–139 (2014).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 38.

    Burdige, D. J. Geochemistry of Marine Sediments 1–609 (Princeton University Press, 2006).

  • 39.

    Aller, R. C. Bioturbation and remineralization of sedimentary organic matter: effects of redox oscillation. Chem. Geol. 114, 331–345 (1994).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 40.

    Aller, R. C. In The Benthic Boundary Layer: Transport Processes and Biogeochemistry (eds Boudreau, B. & Jørgensen, B. B.) 269–301 (Oxford Press, 2001).

  • 41.

    Teal, L. R., Bulling, M. T., Parker, E. R. & Solan, M. Global patterns of bioturbation intensity and mixed depth of marine soft sediments. Aquat. Biol. 2, 207–218 (2008).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 42.

    Arndt, S. et al. Quantifying the degradation of organic matter in marine sediments: a review and synthesis. Earth-Sci. Rev. 123, 53–86 (2013).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 43.

    Levin, L. A. & Sibuet, M. Understanding continental margin biodiversity: a new imperative. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 4, 79–112 (2012).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 44.

    Pusceddu, A. et al. Chronic and intensive bottom trawling impairs deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. PNAS 111, 8861–8866 (2014).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 45.

    Paradis, S. et al. Organic matter contents and degradation in a highly trawled area during fresh particle inputs (Gulf of Castellammare, southwestern Mediterranean). Biogeosciences 16, 4307–4320 (2019).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 46.

    Maier, K. L. et al. Sediment and organic carbon transport and deposition driven by internal tides along Monterey Canyon, offshore California. Deep Sea Res. Part I: Oceanogr. Res. Pap. 153, 103–108 (2019).

  • 47.

    IPCC. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories—A Primer. Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme (eds Eggleston, H. S., Miwa, K., Srivastava, N. & Tanabe, K.) (IGES, Japan, 2008).

  • 48.

    IPCC. 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands (eds Hiraishi, T. et al.) (IPCC, Switzerland, 2014).

  • 49.

    Schuerch, M. et al. Future response of global coastal wetlands to sea-level rise. Nature 561, 231–234 (2018).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 50.

    Griscom, B. W. et al. Natural climate solutions. PNAS 114, 11645–11650 (2017).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 51.

    Troxler, T., Kennedy, H., Crooks, S. & Sutton-Grier, A. In A Blue Carbon Primer: The State of Coastal Wetlands Carbon Science, Practice and Policy (eds Windham-Myers, L., Crooks, S. & Troxler, T.) (CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, 2018).

  • 52.

    Crooks, S. et al. Coastal wetland management as a contribution to the US National Greenhouse Gas Inventory. Nat. Clim. Change 8, 1109–1112 (2018).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 53.

    Ogle, S. M. et al. Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Carbon Bal. Manag. 13, 9 (2018).

  • 54.

    IPCC. Current Scientific Understanding Of The Processes Affecting Terrestrial Carbon Stocks And Human Influences Upon Them. IPCC Meeting on Expert Meeting Report (eds David Schimel, D. & Martin Manning, M.), Geneva, Switzerland, 21–23 July (2003).

  • 55.

    Canadell, J. G. et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 18866–18870 (2007).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 56.

    Krug, J. H. A. Accounting of GHG emissions and removals from forest management: a long road from Kyoto to Paris. Carbon Bal. Manag. 13, 1 (2018).

  • 57.

    Lovelock, C. E. et al. Assessing the risk of carbon dioxide emissions from blue carbon ecosystems. Front. Ecol. Environ. 15, 257–265 (2017).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 58.

    Thorhaug, A., Poulos, H. M., Lopez-Portillo, J., Ku, T. C. W. & Berlyn, G. P. Seagrass blue carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico: stock, losses from anthropogenic disturbance, gains through seagrass restoration. Sci. Total Environ. 15, 626–636 (2017).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 59.

    United Nations. Technical Recommendations in Support of the System of Environmental – Economic Accounting 2012 – Experimental Ecosystem Accounting, 193 (White Cover Publication, United Nations, 2017).

  • 60.

    United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Bank. System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012. Central Framework (2014).

  • 61.

    United Nations, European Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the World Bank. System of Environmental-Economic Accounting 2012: Experimental Ecosystem Accounting—final, official publication (2014).

  • 62.

    Edens, B., Elsasser, P. & Ivanov, E. Discussion paper 6: Defining and valuing carbon related services in the SEEA EEA. Paper submitted to the Expert Meeting on Advancing the Measurement of Ecosystem Services for Ecosystem Accounting, New York, 22–24 January 2019 and subsequently revised. https://seea.un.org/events/expert-meeting-advancing-measurement-ecosystem-services-ecosystem-accounting (2019).

  • 63.

    European Environment Agency. Natural Capital Accounting in Support of Policymaking in Europe—A Review Based on EEA Ecosystem Accounting Work. EEA Report No 26/2018 (Publication Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019). Natural capital accounting provides evidence on ecosystem trends in a structured and integrated manner that allows for analysis of environment-economy interactions, with diverse entry points into policymaking processes.

  • 64.

    UK National Ecosystem Assessment. The UK National Ecosystem Assessment: Follow-on (UK NEA-FO) (UNEP-WCMC, LWEC, UK, 2014). This report applies the ecosystem services approach and balance sheet decision support system to environmental policy.

  • 65.

    Thomas, S. Blue carbon: knowledge gaps, critical issues, and novel approaches. Ecol. Econ. 107, 22–38 (2014).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 66.

    Luisetti, T. et al. Quantifying and valuing carbon flows and stores in coastal and shelf ecosystems in the UK. Ecosyst. Serv. 35, 67–76 (2019). This paper provides an economic valuation of the potential damage to shelf sea sediments.


    Google Scholar
     

  • 67.

    Santos, M. M. et al. The last frontier: coupling technological developments with scientific challenges to improve hazard assessment of deep-sea mining. Sci. Total Environ. 627, 1505–1514 (2018).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 68.

    Orbach, M. Beyond the freedom of the seas: ocean policy for the third millennium. Oceanography 16, 20 (2003).

  • 69.

    International Seabed Authority (ISA) Voluntary Commitments to Support Implementation of SDG14: https://www.isa.org.jm/isa-voluntary-commitments.

  • 70.

    Epstein, G., Nenadovic, M. & Boustany, A. Into the deep blue sea: commons theory and international governance of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna. Int. J. Commons 8, 277–303 (2014).

  • 71.

    United Nations. Convention of Biological Diversity, https://www.cbd.int/sp/ (1992).

  • 72.

    CBD – Subsidiary Body on Implementation. Second meeting Montreal, Canada, 9–13 July 2018. Item 3 of the provisional agenda. Analysis of the Contribution of Targets Established by Parties and Progress Towards the Aichi Biodiversity Targets: Note by the Executive Secretary (Montreal, Canada, 2018).

  • 73.

    UNEP. Assessment of post-2010 National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (Nairobi, Kenya, 2018).

  • 74.

    UN General Assembly Intergovernmental conference on an international legally binding instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction. Fourth session New York, 23 March–3 April 2020 – Revised draft text of an agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction. Note by the President (2020).

  • 75.

    Scharin, H. et al. Processes for the sustainable stewardship of marine environments. Ecol. Econ. 128, 55–67 (2016). This paper applies the balance sheet decision support system to the Baltic Sea Clean Up Action Plan.


    Google Scholar
     

  • 76.

    Hilton, R. G. et al. Tropical-cyclone-driven erosion of the terrestrial biosphere from mountains. Nat. Geosci. 1, 759–762 (2008).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 77.

    Wakelin, S. L. et al. Modeling the carbon fluxes of the northwest European continental shelf: validation and budgets. J. Geophys. Res. 117, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JC007402 (2012). This study provides the most complete model-derived carbon fluxes for the northwest European continental shelf to date.

  • 78.

    Keil, R. Anthropogenic forcing of carbonate and organic carbon preservation in marine sediments. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 9, 151–172 (2017).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 79.

    Diesing, M. et al. Predicting the standing stock of organic carbon in surface sediments of the North–West European continental shelf. Biogeochemistry 135, 183–200 (2017).

    CAS 
    PubMed 
    PubMed Central 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 80.

    OSPAR Assessment Portal. Socioeconomics of the OSPAR Maritime Area—Towards and Assessment Framework. https://oap.ospar.org/en/ospar-assessments/intermediate-assessment-2017/socio-economics/ (2019).

  • 81.

    Thornton, A. et al. Initial Natural Capital Accounts for the Uk Marine and Coastal Environment. Final Report. Report prepared for the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (2019).

  • 82.

    Ajani, J. Carbon Stock Accounts. Information Paper for the United Nations Statistics Division Technical Expert Meeting on Ecosystem Accounts, London, 5–7 December (2011). This paper examines issues connected with the use of the SEEA for ecosystem carbon accounting, including measurement and valuation of ocean carbon stocks.

  • 83.

    United Nation – Statistical Commission – Report on the fifty-first session (3-6 March 2020), Economic and Social Council, Official Records, 2020 – Supplement No. 4: https://unstats.un.org/unsd/statcom/51st-session/documents/2020-37-FinalReport-E.pdf.

  • 84.

    Turner, R. K., Badura, T. & Ferrini, S. Natural capital accounting perspectives: a pragmatic way forward. Ecosyst. Health Sustainability 5, 237–241 (2019). This paper summarises the range of approaches to natural capital accounting and the ongoing debate surrounding them.


    Google Scholar
     

  • 85.

    van de Ven, P., Obst, C. & Edens, B. Accounting treatments when integrating ecosystem accounts in the SNA. Paper prepared for SEEA EEA Revision coordinated by the United Nations Statistics Division OSPAR Assessment Portal. Socioeconomics of the OSPAR Maritime Area – Towards and Assessment Framework. https://oap.ospar.org/en/ospar-assessments/intermediate-assessment-2017/socio-economics/ (2019).

  • 86.

    Acquaye, A. et al. Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints. J. Environ. Manag. 187, 571–585 (2017).

    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 87.

    Brizga, J., Feng, K. & Hubacek, K. Household carbon footprints in the Baltic States: a global multi-regional input–output analysis from 1995 to 2011. Appl. Energy 189, 780–788 (2017).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 88.

    Bordt, M. Discourses in ecosystem accounting: a survey of the expert community. Ecol. Econ. 144, 82–99 (2018).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 89.

    Hein, L. et al. Progress in natural capital accounting for ecosystems. Science 367, 514–515 (2020).

  • 90.

    Fuso Nerini, F. et al. Connecting climate action with other Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Sustainability 2, 674–680 (2019).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 91.

    Le Blanc, D., Freire, C. & Vierros, M. Mapping the linkages between oceans and other Sustainable Development Goals: a preliminary exploration. DESA Working Paper 149 (2017).

  • 92.

    Hardin, G. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162, 1243–1248 (1968).

    ADS 
    CAS 
    PubMed 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 93.

    Brun, A. Conference diplomacy: the making of the Paris Agreement. Politics Gov. 4, 115–123 (2016).


    Google Scholar
     

  • 94.

    Christoff, P. The promissory note: COP 21 and the Paris Climate Agreement. Environ. Politics 25, 765–787 (2016).

    MathSciNet 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 95.

    Pauw, W. P. et al. Beyond headline mitigation numbers: we need more transparent and comparable NDCs to achieve the Paris Agreement on climate change. Clim. Change 147, 23–29 (2017).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 96.

    Gallo, N. D., Victor, D. V. & Levin, L. A. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement. Nat. Clim. Change 7, 833–840 (2017).

    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 97.

    United Nations Environment Programme – The Regional Seas Programme: https://www.unenvironment.org/explore-topics/oceans-seas/what-we-do/working-regional-seas/why-does-working-regional-seas-matter.

  • 98.

    Duarte, C. M., Middelburg, J. J. & Caraco, N. Major role of marine vegetation on the oceanic carbon cycle. Biogeosciences 2, 1–8 (2005).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 99.

    Najjar, R. G. et al. Carbon budget of tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters of eastern North America. Glob. Biogeochemical Cycles 32, 389–416 (2018).

    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • 100.

    Mcleod, E. et al. A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO2. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9, 552–560 (2011).


    Google Scholar
     



  • Source link

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *