Díaz, S. et al. Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change. Science 366, eaax3100 (2019).
Anderson, C. B. et al. Determining nature’s contributions to achieve the sustainable development goals. Sustain. Sci. 14, 543–547 (2019).
Wood, S. L. R. et al. Distilling the role of ecosystem services in the Sustainable Development Goals. Ecosyst. Serv. 29, 70–82 (2018).
Report of the Secretary-General on SDG Progress 2019 (United Nations, 2019).
Le Blanc, D. Towards integration at last? The Sustainable Development Goals as a network of targets. Sustain. Dev. 23, 176–187 (2015).
Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015).
McGowan, P. J. K., Stewart, G. B., Long, G. & Grainger, M. J. An imperfect vision of indivisibility in the Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Sustain. 2, 43–45 (2019).
Nilsson, M., Griggs, D. & Visbeck, M. Policy: Map the interactions between sustainable development goals. Nature 534, 320–322 (2016).
Barbier, E. B. & Burgess, J. C. The Sustainable Development Goals and the systems approach to sustainability. Economics 11, 2017–28 (2017).
Nilsson, M. et al. Mapping interactions between the sustainable development goals: lessons learned and ways forward. Sustain. Sci. 13, 1489–1503 (2018).
Nerini, F. F. et al. Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Energy 3, 10–15 (2018).
Schlüter, M. et al. Capturing emergent phenomena in social-ecological systems: an analytical framework. Ecol. Soc. 24, 11 (2019).
Preiser, R., Biggs, R., De Vos, A. & Folke, C. Social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems: organizing principles for advancing research methods and approaches. Ecol. Soc. 23, 46 (2018).
Fischer, J. et al. Advancing sustainability through mainstreaming a social-ecological systems perspective. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 14, 144–149 (2015).
Leslie, H. M. et al. Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainability. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 5979–5984 (2015).
Reyers, B., Folke, C., Moore, M.-L., Biggs, R. & Galaz, V. Social-ecological systems insights for navigating the dynamics of the Anthropocene. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 43, 267–289 (2018).
Reyers, B., Stafford-Smith, M., Erb, K. H., Scholes, R. J. & Selomane, O. Essential variables help to focus Sustainable Development Goals monitoring. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 26–27, 97–105 (2017).
Selomane, O., Reyers, B., Biggs, R. & Hamann, M. Harnessing insights from social-ecological systems research for monitoring sustainable development. Sustainability 11, 1190 (2019).
Carpenter, S. R. et al. Science for managing ecosystem services: beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 1305–1312 (2009).
Berkes, F. Environmental governance for the Anthropocene? Social-ecological systems, resilience, and collaborative learning. Sustainability 9, 1232 (2017).
Leach, M. et al. Equity and sustainability in the Anthropocene: a social–ecological systems perspective on their intertwined futures. Glob. Sustain. 1, e13 (2018).
Blythe, J., Nash, K., Yates, J. & Cumming, G. Feedbacks as a bridging concept for advancing transdisciplinary sustainability research. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 26–27, 114–119 (2017).
Takeuchi, K., Ichikawa, K. & Elmqvist, T. Satoyama landscape as social-ecological system: historical changes and future perspective. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 19, 30–39 (2016).
Lafuite, A.-S. & Loreau, M. Time-delayed biodiversity feedbacks and the sustainability of social-ecological systems. Ecol. Model. 351, 96–108 (2017).
Daw, T. M. et al. Evaluating taboo trade-offs in ecosystems services and human well-being. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 6949–6954 (2015).
Liu, J. G. et al. Framing sustainability in a telecoupled world. Ecol. Soc. 18, 26 (2013).
Biggs, R. et al. Toward principles for enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 37, 421–448 (2012).
Haider, L. J., Boonstra, W. J., Peterson, G. D. & Schlüter, M. Traps and sustainable development in rural areas: a review. World Dev. 101, 311–321 (2019).
Lade, S. J., Haider, L. J., Engstrom, G. & Schluter, M. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation. Sci. Adv. 3, e1603043 (2017).
Rocha, J. C., Peterson, G., Bodin, O. & Levin, S. Cascading regime shifts within and across scales. Science 362, 1379–1383 (2018).
Synes, N. W. et al. Coupled land use and ecological models reveal emergence and feedbacks in socio-ecological systems. Ecography 42, 814–825 (2019).
Mace, G. M. et al. Aiming higher to bend the curve of biodiversity loss. Nat. Sustain. 1, 448–451 (2018).
Díaz, S. et al. The IPBES Conceptual Framework – connecting nature and people. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 14, 1–16 (2015).
Steffen, W. et al. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347, 1259855 (2015).
Mace, G. M. et al. Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity. Glob. Environ. Change-Hum. Policy Dimens. 28, 289–297 (2014).
Smith, D. C. et al. Implementing marine ecosystem-based management: lessons from Australia. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 74, 1990–2003 (2017).
Hughes, T. P. et al. Global warming and recurrent mass bleaching of corals. Nature 543, 373–377 (2017).
Hughes, T. P. et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of mass bleaching of corals in the Anthropocene. Science 359, 80–83 (2018).
Hughes, T. P. et al. Global warming transforms coral reef assemblages. Nature 556, 492–496 (2018).
Hughes, T. P. et al. Global warming impairs stock–recruitment dynamics of corals. Nature 568, 387–390 (2019).
Manning, P. et al. Redefining ecosystem multifunctionality. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 427–436 (2018).
Halpern, B. S. et al. An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean. Nature 488, 615–620 (2012).
Samhouri, J. F. et al. Sea sick? Setting targets to assess ocean health and ecosystem services. Ecosphere 3, 41 (2012).
Griscom, B. W. et al. Natural climate solutions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 11645–11650 (2017).
McAlpine, C. A. et al. Forest loss and Borneo’s climate. Environ. Res. Lett. 13, 044009 (2018).
Prevedello, J. A., Winck, G. R., Weber, M. M., Nichols, E. & Sinervo, B. Impacts of forestation and deforestation on local temperature across the globe. PLoS ONE 14, e0213368 (2019).
Arkema, K. K. et al. Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms. Nat. Clim. Change 3, 913–918 (2013).
Nel, J. L. et al. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management. PLoS ONE 9, e95942 (2014).
Howard, J. et al. Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 15, 42–50 (2017).
Guerry, A. D. et al. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: from promise to practice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 7348–7355 (2015).
Chaplin-Kramer, R. et al. Global modeling of nature’s contributions to people. Science 366, 255–258 (2019).
Isbell, F. et al. Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate extremes. Nature 526, 574–577 (2015).
Garbach, K. et al. Examining multi-functionality for crop yield and ecosystem services in five systems of agroecological intensification. Int. J. Agric. Sustain. 15, 11–28 (2017).
Wood, S. A. et al. Functional traits in agriculture: agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30, 531–539 (2015).
Schreckenberg, K., Mace, G. & Poudyal, M. Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation: Trade-offs and Governance (Routledge, 2018).
Whitmee, S. et al. Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch: report of The Rockefeller Foundation–Lancet Commission on planetary health. Lancet 386, 1973–2028 (2015).
Buckley, R. C. & Brough, P. Economic value of parks via human mental health: an analytical framework. Front. Ecol. Evol. 5, 16 (2017).
Elmqvist, T. et al. Urban Planet: Knowledge towards Sustainable Cities (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2018).
Reyers, B. et al. Getting the measure of ecosystem services: a social–ecological approach. Front. Ecol. Environ. 11, 268–273 (2013).
Daskin, J. H. & Pringle, R. M. Warfare and wildlife declines in Africa’s protected areas. Nature 553, 328–332 (2018).
von Uexkull, N., Croicu, M., Fjelde, H. & Buhaug, H. Civil conflict sensitivity to growing-season drought. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 12391–12396 (2016).
Moss, A., Jensen, E. & Gusset, M. Impact of a global biodiversity education campaign on zoo and aquarium visitors. Front. Ecol. Environ. 15, 243–247 (2017).
Rustad, S. A. & Binningsbo, H. M. A price worth fighting for? Natural resources and conflict recurrence. J. Peace Res. 49, 531–546 (2012).
Linke, A. M., Witmer, F. D. W., O’Loughlin, J., McCabe, J. T. & Tir, J. The consequences of relocating in response to drought: human mobility and conflict in contemporary Kenya. Environ. Res. Lett. 13, 094014 (2018).
Burrows, K. & Kinney, P. Exploring the climate change, migration and conflict nexus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, 443 (2016).
Global Gender and Development Outlook (United Nations Environment Programme, 2016).
Harper, S., Grubb, C., Stiles, M. & Sumaila, U. R. Contributions by women to fisheries economies: insights from five maritime countries. Coast. Manag. 45, 91–106 (2017).
Cole, S. M. et al. Postharvest fish losses and unequal gender relations: drivers of the social-ecological trap in the Barotse Floodplain fishery, Zambia. Ecol. Soc. 23, 18 (2018).
Martin-Lopez, B., Gomez-Baggethun, E., Garcia-Llorente, M. & Montes, C. Trade-offs across value-domains in ecosystem services assessment. Ecol. Indic. 37, 220–228 (2014).
Carpenter, S. R. & Bennett, E. M. Reconsideration of the planetary boundary for phosphorus. Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 014009 (2011).
Cardinale, B. J. et al. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity. Nature 486, 59–67 (2012).
Keys, P. W., Wang-Erlandsson, L. & Gordon, L. J. Megacity precipitationsheds reveal tele-connected water security challenges. PLoS ONE 13, e0194311 (2018).
Dakos, V. et al. Ecosystem tipping points in an evolving world. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3, 355–362 (2019).
Pardini, R., Bueno, Ad. A., Gardner, T. A., Prado, P. I. & Metzger, J. P. Beyond the fragmentation threshold hypothesis: regime shifts in biodiversity across fragmented landscapes. PLoS ONE 5, e13666 (2010).
Rocha, J. C., Peterson, G., Bodin, Ö. & Levin, S. Cascading regime shifts within and across scales. Science 362, 1379–1383 (2018).
Oosterbroek, B., de Kraker, J., Huynen, M. & Martens, P. Assessing ecosystem impacts on health: a tool review. Ecosyst. Serv. 17, 237–254 (2016).
Gattuso, J.-P. et al. Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO2 emissions scenarios. Science 349, aac4722 (2015).
Pereira, L. & Drimie, S. Governance arrangements for the future food system: addressing complexity in South Africa. Environ.: Sci. Policy Sustain. Dev. 58, 18–31 (2016).
Ericksen, P. J. Conceptualizing food systems for global environmental change research. Glob. Environ. Change 18, 234–245 (2008).
Lade, S. J., Haider, L. J., Engström, G. & Schlüter, M. Resilience offers escape from trapped thinking on poverty alleviation. Sci. Adv. 3, e1603043 (2017).
Winemiller, K. O. et al. Balancing hydropower and biodiversity in the Amazon, Congo, and Mekong. Science 351, 128–129 (2016).
Grill, G. et al. Mapping the world’s free-flowing rivers. Nature 569, 215–221 (2019).
Beck, M. W., Claassen, A. H. & Hundt, P. J. Environmental and livelihood impacts of dams: common lessons across development gradients that challenge sustainability. Int. J. River Basin Manag. 10, 73–92 (2012).
Botelho, A., Ferreira, P., Lima, F., Pinto, L. M. C. & Sousa, S. Assessment of the environmental impacts associated with hydropower. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 70, 896–904 (2017).
Barber, C. P., Cochrane, M. A., Souza, C. M. & Laurance, W. F. Roads, deforestation, and the mitigating effect of protected areas in the Amazon. Biol. Conserv. 177, 203–209 (2014).
Benitez-Lopez, A., Alkemade, R. & Verweij, P. A. The impacts of roads and other infrastructure on mammal and bird populations: a meta-analysis. Biol. Conserv. 143, 1307–1316 (2010).
Driscoll, D. A. et al. A biodiversity-crisis hierarchy to evaluate and refine conservation indicators. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 775–781 (2018).
Hoekstra, A. Y. & Mekonnen, M. M. The water footprint of humanity. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 3232–3237 (2012).
Dalin, C., Wada, Y., Kastner, T. & Puma, M. J. Groundwater depletion embedded in international food trade. Nature 543, 700–704 (2017).
D’Odorico, P. et al. Global virtual water trade and the hydrological cycle: patterns, drivers, and socio-environmental impacts. Environ. Res. Lett. 14, 053001 (2019).
Crona, B. I. et al. Masked, diluted and drowned out: how global seafood trade weakens signals from marine ecosystems. Fish Fish. 17, 1175–1182 (2016).
Galaz, V. et al. Tax havens and global environmental degradation. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 2, 1352–1357 (2018).
Folke, C. et al. Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 3, 1396–1403 (2019).
United Nations Secretary-General Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals: Report of the Secretary-General (UN, 2018).
Stafford-Smith, M. et al. Integration: the key to implementing the Sustainable Development Goals. Sustain. Sci. 12, 911–919 (2017).
Abson, D. J. et al. Leverage points for sustainability transformation. Ambio 46, 30–39 (2017).
Sachs, J. D. et al. Six Transformations to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Nat. Sustain. 2, 805–814 (2019).
Arkema, K. K. et al. Embedding ecosystem services in coastal planning leads to better outcomes for people and nature. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 7390–7395 (2015).
Eakin, H. et al. Identifying attributes of food system sustainability: emerging themes and consensus. Agric. Hum. Values 34, 757–773 (2017).
Biggs, R., Schlüter, M. & Schoon, M. L. Principles for Building Resilience: Sustaining Ecosystem Services in Social-Ecological Systems (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2015).