State of Europe’s Forests 2015 Report (Forest Europe, 2015).
Fuchs, R., Herold, M., Verburg, P. H., Clevers, J. G. P. W. & Eberle, J. Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010. Global Change Biol. 21, 299–313 (2015).
Ciais, P. et al. Carbon accumulation in European forests. Nat. Geosci. 1, 425–429 (2008).
Senf, C. et al. Canopy mortality has doubled across Europe’s temperate forests in the last three decades. Nat. Commun. 9, 4978 (2018).
Seidl, R., Schelhaas, M.-J. & Lexer, M. J. Unraveling the drivers of intensifying forest disturbance regimes in Europe. Global Change Biol. 17, 2842–2852 (2011).
Senf, C. & Seidl, R. Natural disturbances are spatially diverse but temporally synchronized across temperate forest landscapes in Europe. Global Change Biol. 24, 1201–1211 (2018).
Senf, C., Sebald, J. & Seidl, R. Increases in canopy mortality and their impact on the demographic structure of Europe’s forests. Preprint at bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.30.015818 (2020).
Nabuurs, G.-J. et al. First signs of carbon sink saturation in European forest biomass. Nat. Clim. Change 3, 792–796 (2013).
Seidl, R., Schelhaas, M. J., Rammer, W. & Verkerk, P. J. Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage. Nat. Clim. Change 4, 806–810 (2014).
Thom, D. & Seidl, R. Natural disturbance impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity in temperate and boreal forests. Biol. Rev. 91, 760–781 (2016).
Lindner, M. et al. Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems. Forest Ecol. Manage. 259, 698–709 (2010).
Allen, C. D. et al. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecol. Manage. 259, 660–684 (2010).
Trumbore, S., Brando, P. & Hartmann, H. Forest health and global change. Science 349, 814–818 (2015).
Millar, C. I., Stephenson, N. L. & Stephens, S. L. Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecol. Appl. 17, 2145–2151 (2007).
Seidl, R. The shape of ecosystem management to come: anticipating risks and fostering resilience. BioScience 64, 1159–1169 (2014).
Turner, M. G. Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world. Ecology 91, 2833–2849 (2010).
Johnstone, J. F. et al. Changing disturbance regimes, ecological memory, and forest resilience. Front. Ecol. Environ. 14, 369–378 (2016).
Bebi, P. et al. Changes of forest cover and disturbance regimes in the mountain forests of the Alps. Forest Ecol. Manage. 388, 43–56 (2017).
Kulakowski, D., Bebi, P. & Rixen, C. The interacting effects of land use change, climate change and suppression of natural disturbances on landscape forest structure in the Swiss Alps. Oikos 120, 216–225 (2011).
Munteanu, C. et al. Legacies of 19th century land use shape contemporary forest cover. Glob. Environ. Change 34, 83–94 (2015).
Sommerfeld, A. et al. Patterns and drivers of recent disturbances across the temeprate forest biome. Nat. Commun. 9, 4355 (2018).
Lindenmayer, D. B. et al. Salvage harvesting policies after natural disturbance. Science 303, 1303 (2004).
Senf, C., Müller, J. & Seidl, R. Post-disturbance recovery of forest cover and tree height differ with management in Central Europe. Landsc. Ecol. 34, 2837–2850 (2019).
Thorn, S. et al. Impacts of salvage logging on biodiversity: a meta-analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 55, 279–289 (2018).
Janda, P. et al. The historical disturbance regime of mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians and its influence on current forest structure and composition. Forest Ecol. Manage. 388, 67–78 (2017).
Vacchiano, G., Garbarino, M., Lingua, E. & Motta, R. Forest dynamics and disturbance regimes in the Italian Apennines. Forest Ecol. Manage. 388, 57–66 (2017).
Nagel, T. A. et al. The natural disturbance regime in forests of the Dinaric Mountains: a synthesis of evidence. Forest Ecol. Manage. 388, 29–42 (2017).
Stephens, S. L. et al. Temperate and boreal forest mega-fires: characteristics and challenges. Front. Ecol. Environ. 12, 115–122 (2014).
Brang, P. et al. Suitability of close-to-nature silviculture for adapting temperate European forests to climate change. Forestry 87, 492–503 (2014).
Kulha, N. A. et al. At what scales and why does forest structure vary in naturally dynamic boreal forests? An analysis of forest landscapes on two continents. Ecosystems 22, 709–724 (2019).
Duncker, P. S. et al. Classification of forest management approaches. Ecol. Soc. 17, 51 (2012).
Levers, C. et al. Drivers of forest harvesting intensity patterns in Europe. Forest Ecol. Manage. 315, 160–172 (2014).
Boncina, A. History, current status and future prospects of uneven-aged forest management in the Dinaric region: an overview. Forestry 84, 467–478 (2011).
Kulakowski, D. et al. A walk on the wild side: disturbance dynamics and the conservation and management of European mountain forest ecosystems. Forest Ecol. Manage. 388, 120–131 (2017).
Kuuluvainen, T., Tahvonen, O. & Aakala, T. Even-aged and uneven-aged forest management in boreal Fennoscandia: a review. AMBIO 41, 720–737 (2012).
Kuemmerle, T., Hostert, P., Radeloff, V. C., Perzanowski, K. & Kruhlov, I. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Ecol. Appl. 17, 1279–1295 (2007).
Forzieri, G. et al. A spatially explicit database of wind disturbances in European forests over the period 2000–2018. Earth Syst. Sci. Data 12, 257–276 (2020).
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., Moreno, J. M. & Camia, A. Analysis of large fires in European Mediterranean landscapes: lessons learned and perspectives. Forest Ecol. Manage. 294, 11–22 (2013).
Mori, A. S. & Kitagawa, R. Retention forestry as a major paradigm for safeguarding forest biodiversity in productive landscapes: a global meta-analysis. Biol. Conserv. 175, 65–73 (2014).
Meigs, G. W. et al. More ways than one: mixed-severity disturbance regimes foster structural complexity via multiple developmental pathways. Forest Ecol. Manage. 406, 410–426 (2017).
Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M. A., White, J. C., Coops, N. C. & Hobart, G. W. Regional detection, characterization, and attribution of annual forest change from 1984 to 2012 using Landsat-derived time-series metrics. Remote Sens. Environ. 170, 121–132 (2015).
Olofsson, P. et al. Good practices for estimating area and assessing accuracy of land change. Remote Sens. Environ. 148, 42–57 (2014).
Potapov, P. V. et al. Eastern Europe’s forest cover dynamics from 1985 to 2012 quantified from the full Landsat archive. Remote Sens. Environ. 159, 28–43 (2015).
Senf, C., Pflugmacher, D., Hostert, P. & Seidl, R. Using Landsat time series for characterizing forest disturbance dynamics in the coupled human and natural systems of Central Europe. ISPRS J. Photogramm. Remote Sens. 130, 453–463 (2017).
Kennedy, R. E. et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth within the area of the Northwest Forest Plan. Remote Sens. Environ. 122, 117–133 (2012).
Hermosilla, T., Wulder, M. A., White, J. C., Coops, N. C. & Hobart, G. W. An integrated Landsat time series protocol for change detection and generation of annual gap-free surface reflectance composites. Remote Sens. Environ. 158, 220–234 (2015).
Cohen, W. B., Yang, Z. & Kennedy, R. Detecting trends in forest disturbance and recovery using yearly Landsat time series: 2. TimeSync—tools for calibration and validation. Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 2911–2924 (2010).
Pflugmacher, D., Rabe, A., Peters, M. & Hostert, P. Mapping pan-European land cover using Landsat spectral-temporal metrics and the European LUCAS survey. Remote Sens. Environ. 221, 583–595 (2019).
Kennedy, R. E., Yang, Z. & Cohen, W. B. Detecting trends in forest disturbance and recovery using yearly Landsat time series: 1. LandTrendr—temporal segmentation algorithms. Remote Sens. Environ. 114, 2897–2910 (2010).
Kennedy, R. et al. Implementation of the LandTrendr algorithm on Google Earth Engine. Remote Sens. 10, 691 (2018).
Roy, D. P. et al. Characterization of Landsat-7 to Landsat-8 reflective wavelength and normalized difference vegetation index continuity. Remote Sens. Environ. 185, 57–70 (2016).
Flood, N. Seasonal composite landsat TM/ETM+ images using the medoid (a multi-dimensional median). Remote Sens. 5, 6481–6500 (2013).
Pflugmacher, D., Cohen, W. B. & E. Kennedy, R. Using Landsat-derived disturbance history (1972–2010) to predict current forest structure. Remote Sens. Environ. 122, 146–165 (2012).
Cohen, W. B., Yang, Z., Healey, S. P., Kennedy, R. E. & Gorelick, N. A LandTrendr multispectral ensemble for forest disturbance detection. Remote Sens. Environ. 205, 131–140 (2018).
Senf, C., Pflugmacher, D., Wulder, M. A. & Hostert, P. Characterizing spectral–temporal patterns of defoliator and bark beetle disturbances using Landsat time series. Remote Sens. Environ. 170, 166–177 (2015).
Breiman, L. Random forests. Mach. Learn. 45, 5–32 (2001).
Cohen, W. et al. How similar are forest disturbance maps derived from different landsat time series algorithms? Forests 8, 98 (2017).
Birch, C. P. D., Oom, S. P. & Beecham, J. A. Rectangular and hexagonal grids used for observation, experiment and simulation in ecology. Ecol. Model. 206, 347–359 (2007).
Bright, B. C., Hudak, A. T., Kennedy, R. E. & Meddens, A. J. H. Landsat time series and Lidar as predictors of live and dead basal area across five bark beetle-affected forests. IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Obs. Remote Sens. 7, 3440–3452 (2014).
Wilcox, R. R. Fundamentals of Modern Statistical Methods: Substantially Improving Power and Accuracy (Springer, 2010).