Verrier, S. et al. Tissue engineering and regenerative approaches to improving the healing of large bone defects. Eur. Cell Mater. 32, 87–110 (2016).
Ramasamy, S. K. et al. Blood flow controls bone vascular function and osteogenesis. Nat. Commun. 7, 13601 (2016).
Ramasamy, S. K., Kusumbe, A. P., Wang, L. & Adams, R. H. Endothelial Notch activity promotes angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone. Nature 507, 376–380 (2014).
Li, W. W., Talcott, K. E., Zhai, A. W., Kruger, E. A. & Li, V. W. The role of therapeutic angiogenesis in tissue repair and regeneration. Adv. Skin Wound Care 18, 491–500 (2005).
Hu, K. & Olsen, B. R. The roles of vascular endothelial growth factor in bone repair and regeneration. Bone 91, 30–38 (2016).
Amini, A. R., Laurencin, C. T. & Nukavarapu, S. P. Bone tissue engineering: Recent advances and challenges. Crit. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 40, 363–408 (2012).
Nguyen, L. H. et al. Vascularized bone tissue engineering: Approaches for potential improvement. Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. 18, 363–382 (2012).
Marrella, A. et al. Engineering vascularized and innervated bone biomaterials for improved skeletal tissue regeneration. Mater. Today 21, 362–376 (2018).
Dimitriou, R., Jones, E., McGonagle, D. & Giannoudis, P. V. Bone regeneration: Current concepts and future directions. BMC Med. 9, 66 (2011).
Haugen, H. J., Lyngstadaas, S. P., Rossi, F. & Perale, G. Bone grafts: Which is the ideal biomaterial?. J. Clin. Periodontol. 46, 92–102 (2019).
Cassell, C. O., Hofer, O. S., Morrison, W. A. & Knight, K. R. Vascularisation of tissue-engineered grafts: The regulation of angiogenesis in reconstructive surgery and in disease states. Br. J. Plast. Surg. 55, 603–610 (2002).
Yu, H. et al. Improved tissue-engineered bone regeneration by endothelial cell mediated vascularization. Biomaterials 30, 508–517 (2009).
Schmidmaier, G., Capanna, R., Wildemann, B., Beque, T. & Lowenberg, D. Bone morphogenetic proteins in critical-size bone defects: What are the options?. Injury 40, S39–S43 (2009).
Khan, W. S., Rayan, F., Dhinsa, B. S. & Marsh, D. An osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic tissue-engineered product for trauma and orthopaedic surgery: How far are we?. Stem Cells Int. 20, 12 (2012).
Hernigou, P. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering, part III: Allografts, bone grafting and bone banking in the twentieth century. Int. Orthop. 39, 577–587 (2015).
Aponte-Tinao, L. A., Ayerza, M. A., Muscolo, D. L. & Farfalli, G. L. What are the risk factors and management options for infection after reconstruction with massive bone allografts?. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. 474, 669–673 (2016).
Vormoor, B. et al. Development of a preclinical orthotopic xenograft model of ewing sarcoma and other human malignant bone disease using advanced in vivo imaging. PLoS ONE 9, e85128 (2014).
Eaker, S. et al. Concise review: guidance in developing commercializable autologous/patient-specific cell therapy manufacturing. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2, 871–883 (2013).
Fahimipour, F. et al. Enhancing cell seeding and osteogenesis of MSCs on 3D printed scaffolds through injectable BMP-2 immobilized ECM-Mimetic gel. Dent. Mater. 35, 990–1006 (2019).
Fahimipour, F. et al. Collagenous matrix supported by a 3D-printed scaffold for osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells. Dent. Mater. 34, 209–220 (2018).
Nikpour, P. et al. Dextran hydrogels incorporated with bioactive glass-ceramic: Nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Carbohyd. Polym. 190, 281–294 (2018).
Dhayani, A., Kalita, S., Mahato, M., Srinath, P. & Vemula, P. K. Biomaterials for topical and transdermal drug delivery in reconstructive transplantation. Nanomedicine 14, 2713–2733 (2019).
White, K. A. & Olabisi, R. M. Spatiotemporal control strategies for bone formation through tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches. Adv. Healthcare Mater. 8, 1801044 (2019).
Fahimipour, F. et al. 3D printed TCP-based scaffold incorporating VEGF-loaded PLGA microspheres for craniofacial tissue engineering. Dent. Mater. 33, 1205–1216 (2017).
Khojasteh, A. et al. Development of PLGA-coated β-TCP scaffolds containing VEGF for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 69, 780–788 (2016).
Miles, K. B., Maerz, T. & Matthew, H. W. T. Scalable MSC-derived bone tissue modules: In vitro assessment of differentiation, matrix deposition, and compressive load bearing. Acta Biomater. 2, 1 (2019).
Steeves, A. J., Atwal, A., Schock, S. C. & Variola, F. Evaluation of the direct effects of poly (dopamine) on the in vitro response of human osteoblastic cells. J. Mater. Chem. B 4, 3145–3156 (2016).
Dang, M., Saunders, L., Niu, X., Fan, Y. & Ma, P. X. Biomimetic delivery of signals for bone tissue engineering. Bone Res. 6, 1–12 (2018).
Cao, L., Wang, J., Hou, J., Xing, W. & Liu, C. Vascularization and bone regeneration in a critical sized defect using 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan nanoparticles incorporating BMP-2. Biomaterials 35, 684–698 (2014).
Akhlaghi, F. et al. Improved bone regeneration through amniotic membrane loaded with buccal fat pad-derived MSCs as an adjuvant in maxillomandibular reconstruction. J. Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surg. 47, 1266–1273 (2019).
Chen, Y., Zhou, S. & Li, Q. Mathematical modeling of degradation for bulk-erosive polymers: applications in tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems. Acta Biomater. 7, 1140–1149 (2011).
Dashtimoghadam, E., Mirzadeh, H., Taromi, F. A. & Nyström, B. Microfluidic self-assembly of polymeric nanoparticles with tunable compactness for controlled drug delivery. Polymer 54, 4972–4979 (2013).
Majedi, F. S. et al. Microfluidic assisted self-assembly of chitosan based nanoparticles as drug delivery agents. Lab Chip 13, 204–207 (2013).
Riahi, R. et al. Microfluidics for advanced drug delivery systems. Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. 7, 101–112 (2015).
Dashtimoghadam, E., Fahimipour, F., Davaji, B., Hasani-Sadrabadi, M. & Tayebi, L. Microfluidic-directed synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles for bone cancer therapy. Dent. Mater. 1, e59–e60 (2016).
Leong, W. & Wang, D.-A. Cell-laden polymeric microspheres for biomedical applications. Trends Biotechnol. 33, 653–666 (2015).
Saralidze, K., Koole, L. H. & Knetsch, M. L. Polymeric microspheres for medical applications. Materials 3, 3537–3564 (2010).
Dashtimoghadam, E. et al. Rheological study and molecular dynamics simulation of biopolymer blend thermogels of tunable strength. Biomacromol 17, 3474–3484 (2016).
Nienow, A. W., Rafiq, Q. A., Coopman, K. & Hewitt, C. J. A potentially scalable method for the harvesting of hMSCs from microcarriers. Biochem. Eng. J. 85, 79–88 (2014).
Heathman, T. R. et al. Expansion, harvest and cryopreservation of human mesenchymal stem cells in a serum-free microcarrier process. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 112, 1696–1707 (2015).
Lim, Y. S. et al. Free flap reconstruction of head and neck defects after oncologic ablation: one surgeon’s outcomes in 42 cases. Archiv. Plast. Surg. 41, 148–152 (2014).
Ogilvie, C. M. et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor improves bone repair in a murine nonunion model. Iowa Orthopaed. J. 32, 90 (2012).
Beamer, B., Hettrich, C. & Lane, J. Vascular endothelial growth factor: An essential component of angiogenesis and fracture healing. HSS J. 6, 85–94 (2010).
Farokhi, M. et al. Importance of dual delivery systems for bone tissue engineering. J. Control. Release 225, 152–169 (2016).
Richardson, T. P., Peters, M. C., Ennett, A. B. & Mooney, D. J. Polymeric system for dual growth factor delivery. Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 1029 (2001).
Patel, Z. S. et al. Dual delivery of an angiogenic and an osteogenic growth factor for bone regeneration in a critical size defect model. Bone 43, 931–940 (2008).
Young, S. et al. Dose effect of dual delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-2 on bone regeneration in a rat critical-size defect model. Tissue Eng. Part A 15, 2347–2362 (2009).
Shah, N. J. et al. Tunable dual growth factor delivery from polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Biomaterials 32, 6183–6193 (2011).
Ding, Y., Floren, M. & Tan, W. Mussel-inspired polydopamine for bio-surface functionalization. Biosurf. Biotribol. 2, 121–136 (2016).
Elia, R. et al. Stimulation of in vivo angiogenesis by in situ crosslinked, dual growth factor-loaded, glycosaminoglycan hydrogels. Biomaterials 31, 4630–4638 (2010).
Tomanek, R. J., Lotun, K., Clark, E. B., Suvarna, P. R. & Hu, N. VEGF and bFGF stimulate myocardial vascularization in embryonic chick. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circul. Physiol. 274, H1620–H1626 (1998).
Davies, N. et al. The dosage dependence of VEGF stimulation on scaffold neovascularisation. Biomaterials 29, 3531–3538 (2008).
Holland, T. A., Tabata, Y. & Mikos, A. G. Dual growth factor delivery from degradable oligo (poly (ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. J. Control. Release 101, 111–125 (2005).
Gentile, P., Chiono, V., Carmagnola, I. & Hatton, P. V. An overview of poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, 3640–3659 (2014).
Sabir, M. I., Xu, X. & Li, L. A review on biodegradable polymeric materials for bone tissue engineering applications. J. Mater. Sci. 44, 5713–5724 (2009).
Sinha, V. & Trehan, A. Biodegradable microspheres for protein delivery. J. Control. Release 90, 261–280 (2003).
Wang, J. et al. Release of paclitaxel from polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microparticles and discs under irradiation. J. Microencapsul. 20, 317–327 (2003).
Macha, I. J. et al. Drug delivery from polymer-based nanopharmaceuticals–An experimental study complemented by a simulation of selected diffusion processes. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 7, 37 (2019).
Leo, E., Cameroni, R. & Forni, F. Dynamic dialysis for the drug release evaluation from doxorubicin–gelatin nanoparticle conjugates. Int. J. Pharm. 180, 23–30 (1999).
Lee, K. Y. & Mooney, D. J. Alginate: Properties and biomedical applications. Prog. Polym. Sci. 37, 106–126 (2012).
Jo, S. et al. Enhanced adhesion of preosteoblasts inside 3D PCL scaffolds by polydopamine coating and mineralization. Macromol. Biosci. 13, 1389–1395 (2013).
Zhang, J. et al. Improving osteogenesis of PLGA/HA porous scaffolds based on dual delivery of BMP-2 and IGF-1 via a polydopamine coating. RSC Adv. 7, 56732–56742 (2017).
Chen, L. Enhancement in sustained release of antimicrobial peptide and BMP-2 from degradable three dimensional-printed PLGA scaffold for bone regeneration. RSC Adv. 9, 10494–10507 (2019).
Zhang, Y.-G. et al. Dopamine-modified highly porous hydroxyapatite microtube networks with efficient near-infrared photothermal effect, enhanced protein adsorption and mineralization performance. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 159, 337–348 (2017).
Scarfì, S. Use of bone morphogenetic proteins in mesenchymal stem
cell stimulation of cartilage and bone repair. World J. Stem Cells 8, 1 (2016).
Wozney, J. M. The potential role of bone morphogenetic proteins in periodontal reconstruction. J. Periodontol. 66, 506–510 (1995).
Davies, S. D. & Ochs, M. W. Bone morphogenetic proteins in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. Clin. 22, 17–31 (2010).
Taipale, J. & Keski-Oja, J. Growth factors in the extracellular matrix. FASEB J. 11, 51–59 (1997).
Migliorini, E., Valat, A., Picart, C. & Cavalcanti-Adam, E. A. Tuning cellular responses to BMP-2 with material surfaces. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 27, 43–54 (2016).
Schwab, E. H. et al. Nanoscale control of surface immobilized BMP-2: Toward a quantitative assessment of BMP-mediated signaling events. Nano Lett. 15, 1526–1534 (2015).
Heathman, T. R. et al. The translation of cell-based therapies: clinical landscape and manufacturing challenges. Regener. Med. 10, 49–64 (2015).
Nienow, A. W. Reactor engineering in large scale animal cell culture. Cytotechnology 50, 9–33 (2006).
Rafiq, Q. A., Brosnan, K. M., Coopman, K., Nienow, A. W. & Hewitt, C. J. Culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on microcarriers in a 5 l stirred-tank bioreactor. Biotech. Lett. 35, 1233–1245 (2013).
Farid, S.S., et al. Bioprocesses for cell therapies. In Biopharmaceutical Processing 899–930 (2018).
Bernardo, M. E. et al. Optimization of in vitro expansion of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for cell-therapy approaches: further insights in the search for a fetal calf serum substitute. J. Cell. Physiol. 211, 121–130 (2007).
Fernandes, A. M. et al. Successful scale-up of human embryonic stem cell production in a stirred microcarrier culture system. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 42, 515–522 (2009).
Hewitt, C. J. et al. Expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells on microcarriers. Biotechnol. Lett. 11, 2325–2335 (2011).
Uchida, S. et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor is expressed along with its receptors during the healing, process of bone and bone marrow after drill-hole injury in rats. Bone 32, 491–501 (2003).
Pufe, T. et al. Quantitative measurement of the splice variants 120 and 164 of the angiogenic peptide vascular endothelial growth factor in the time flow of fracture healing: A study in the rat. Cell Tissue Res 309, 387–392 (2002).
Cao, L. et al. Synergistic effects of dual growth factor delivery from composite hydrogels incorporating 2-N, 6-O-sulphated chitosan on bone regeneration. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 46, S1–S17 (2018).
Jeon, O. et al. Long-term delivery enhances in vivo osteogenic efficacy of bone morphogenetic protein-2 compared to short-term delivery. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 369, 774–780 (2008).
Barati, D. et al. Spatiotemporal release of BMP-2 and VEGF enhances osteogenic and vasculogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial colony-forming cells co-encapsulated in a patterned hydrogel. J. Control. Release 223, 126–136 (2016).
Liu, H. et al. Icariin immobilized electrospinning poly (l-lactide) fibrous membranes via polydopamine adhesive coating with enhanced cytocompatibility and osteogenic activity. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 79, 399–409 (2017).
Kao, C.-T. et al. Poly (dopamine) coating of 3D printed poly (lactic acid) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 56, 165–173 (2015).
Kim, S. & Chan, B. P. Dopamine-induced mineralization of calcium carbonate vaterite microspheres. Langmuir 26(18), 14730–14736 (2010).
Jo, S. et al. Enhanced adhesion of preosteoblasts inside 3 D PCL scaffolds by polydopamine coating and mineralization. Macromol. Biosci. 13(10), 1389–1395 (2013).
Wang, H. et al. Mussel-inspired polydopamine coating: a general strategy to enhance osteogenic differentiation and osseointegration for diverse implants. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(7), 7615–7625 (2019).
Li, Z. et al. Effects of altered CXCL12/CXCR4 axis on BMP2/Smad/Runx2/Osterix axis and osteogenic gene expressions during osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Am. J. Transl. Res. 9(4), 1680 (2017).
Chen, D. et al. Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix (Osx) and HIF-1α cooperatively regulate gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1, 176–181 (2012).
Talavera-Adame, D. et al. Endothelial cells in co-culture enhance embryonic stem cell differentiation to pancreatic progenitors and insulin-producing cells through BMP signaling. Stem Cell Rev. Rep. 7, 532–543 (2011).
Geuze, L. F. et al. A differential effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor release timing on osteogenesis at ectopic and orthotopic sites in a large-animal model. Tissue Eng. Part A 18, 2052–2062 (2012).
Kakudo, K. et al. Immunolocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor on intramuscular ectopic osteoinduction by bone morphogenetic protein-2. Life Sci. 79, 1847–1855 (2006).