Wang, J. et al. Anthropogenically-driven increases in the risks of summertime compound hot extremes. Nat. Commun. 11(1), 528 (2020).
Fischer, E. M. & Knutti, R. Detection of spatially aggregated changes in temperature and precipitation extremes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(2), 547–554 (2014).
Alexander, L. V. et al. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 111(D5), 1042–1063 (2006).
Forootan, E. et al. Understanding the global hydrological droughts of 2003–2016 and their relationships with teleconnections. Sci. Total. Environ. 650, 2587–2604 (2019).
Mueller, B. & Seneviratne, S. I. Hot days induced by precipitation deficits at the global scale. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 109(31), 12398–12403 (2012).
Shi, J., Cui, L., Ma, Y., Du, H. & Wen, K. Trends in temperature extremes and their association with circulation patterns in China during 1961–2015. Atmos. Res. 212, 259–272 (2018).
Yu, R., Zhai, P. M. & Lu, Y. Y. Implications of differential effects between 1.5 and 2°C global warming on temperature and precipitation extremes in China’s urban agglomerations. Int. J. Climatol. 38, 2374–2385 (2018).
Sun, P., Zhang, Q., Wen, Q. Z., Singh, V. P. & Shi, P. J. Multisource data-based integrated agricultural drought monitoring in the Huai River Basin China. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, 10–751 (2017).
Wang, L., Chen, W., Zhou, W. & Huang, G. Understanding and detecting super extreme droughts in southwest China through an integrated approach and index. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 142(694), 529–535 (2016).
Wang, W. W., Zhou, W., Li, X. Z., Wang, X. & Wang, D. X. Synoptic-scale characteristics and atmospheric controls of summer heat waves in China. Clim. Dyn. 46, 2923–2941. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2741-8 (2016).
Wang, L., Chen, W. & Zhou, W. Assessment of future drought in Southwest China based on CMIP5 multimodel projections. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1035–1050 (2014).
Vogel, M. M., Zscheischler, J., Wartenburger, R., Dee, D. & Seneviratne, S. I. Concurrent 2018 hot extremes across Northern Hemisphere due to human-induced climate change. Earth’s Future. 7, 692–703 (2019).
Aghakouchak, A., Cheng, L. Y., Mazdiyasni, O. & Farahmand, A. Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: insights from the 2014 California drought. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(24), 8847–8852 (2014).
Fink, A. H. et al. The 2003 European summer heatwaves and drought?. Synop. Diagn. Impacts Weather 59(8), 209–216 (2010).
Mangani, R., Tesfamariam, E., Bellocchi, G. & Hassen, A. Modelled impacts of extreme heat and drought on maize yield in South Africa. Crop Pasture Sci. 69, 703–716 (2018).
Zscheischler, J. et al. Future climate risk from compound events. Nat. Clim. Change 8, 469–477 (2018).
Russo, A., Gouveia, C. M. & Dutra, E. The synergy between drought and extremely hot summers in the Mediterranean. Environ. Res. Lett. 14, 014011 (2019).
Hao, Z. C., Hao, F. H., Singh, V. P. & Zhang, X. Changes in the severity of compound drought and hot extremes over global land areas. Environ. Res. Lett. 13, 124022 (2018).
Lyon, B. Southern Africa summer drought and heat waves: observations and coupled model behavior. J. Clim. 22, 6033–6046 (2009).
Mazdiyasni, O. & Aghakouchak, A. Substantial increase in concurrent droughts and heatwaves in the United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 112(37), 11484–11489 (2015).
Albright, T. P. et al. Combined effects of heat waves and droughts on avian communities across the conterminous United States. Ecosphere 1(5), 1–22 (2010).
Li, X. et al. Concurrent droughts and hot extremes in northwest China from 1961 to 2017. Int. J. Climatol. 39, 2186–2196 (2019).
Lu, Y., Hu, H. C., Li, C. & Tian, F. Q. Increasing compound events of extreme hot and dry days during growing seasons of wheat and maize in China. Sci. Rep. 8, 16700 (2018).
Kong, Q. Q. et al. Increases in summertime concurrent drought and heatwave in Eastern China. Weather Clim. Extremes 28, 100242 (2020).
Feng, S. F., Hao, Z. C., Zhang, X. & Hao, F. H. Probabilistic evaluation of the impact of compound dry-hot events on global maize yields. Sci. Total Environ. 389, 1228–1234 (2019).
Sedlmeier, K., Feldmann, H. & Schädler, G. Compound summer temperature and precipitation extremes over central Europe. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 131(24), 1493–1501 (2017).
Wang, S., Yuan, X. & Wu, R. Attribution of the persistent spring-summer hot and dry extremes over northeast China in 2017. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 100(1), S85–S89 (2019).
Zscheischler, J. & Seneviratne, S. I. Dependence of drivers affects risks associated with compound events. Sci. Adv. 3, e1700263 (2017).
Schubert, S. D., Wang, H., Koster, R. D. & Suarez, M. J. Northern Eurasian heat waves and droughts. J. Clim. 27(9), 3169–3207 (2014).
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China & China National Standardization Administration. GB /T 20481-2017 Grades of meteorological drought [ed. Zhang X. J. et al., S.] 5 (China Standard Press, 2017).
Liao, Y. M. & Zhang, C. J. Spatio-temporal distribution characteristics and disaster change of drought in China based on meteorological drought composite index. Meteorol. Mon. 43(11), 1402–1409 (2017).
Zolina, O., Simmer, C., Gulev, S. K. & Kollet, S. Changing structure of European precipitation: longer wet periods leasing to stronger extremes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 37(6), 460–472 (2010).
Chen, Y. & Zhai, P. M. Changing structure of wet periods across southwest China during 1961–2012. Clim. Res. 61(2), 123–131 (2014).
Zhai, P. M., Zhang, X. B., Wan, H. & Pan, X. H. Trends in total precipitation and frequency of daily precipitation extremes over China. J. Clim. 18(7), 1096–1108 (2005).
Wu, X., Hao, Z., Hao, F. & Zhang, X. Variations of compound precipitation and temperature extremes in China during 1961–2014. Sci. Total Environ. 663, 731–737 (2019).
Wang, Y., Ren, F. & Zhang, X. Spatial and temporal variations of regional high temperature events in China. Int. J. Climatol. 34(10), 3054–3065 (2014).
Zhang, H. Y., Wu, C. H. & Hu, B. X. Recent intensification of short-term concurrent hot and dry extremes over the Pearl River basin China. Int. J. Climatol. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6116 (2019).
Li, M. X. & Ma, Z. G. Decadal changes in summer precipitation over arid northwest China and associated atmospheric circulation. Int. J. Climatol. 38, 4496–4508 (2018).
Wang, L. J. et al. Increasing concurrent dought and heat in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain China. Int. J. Climatol. 38, 3177–3190 (2018).
Ding, T. & Qian, W. Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960–2008. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 28(2), 322–337 (2011).
Zhou, T., Ma, S. & Zou, L. Understanding a hot summer in central eastern China: summer 2013 in context of multimodel trend analysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 95, S54 (2014).
Wang, W. W. et al. Statistical modeling and CMIP5 simulations of hot spell changes in China. Clim. Dyn. 44, 2859–2872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-014-2287-1 (2015).
Wang, M., Gu, Q., Jia, X. J. & Ge, J. W. An assessment of the impact of Pacific decadal oscillation on autumn droughts in North China based on the Palmer drought severity index. Int. J. Climatol. 39(14), 5338–5350 (2019).
Shi, J. et al. Trends in the consecutive days of temperature and precipitation extremes in China during 1961–2015. Environ. Res. 161, 381–391 (2018).
Liu, J. & Zhai, P. M. Changes in climate regionalization indices in China during 1961–2010. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 31(2), 374–384 (2014).
Zhang, J., Li, L., Wu, Z. W. & Li, X. M. Prolonged dry spells in recent decades over north-central China and their association with a northward shift in planetary waves. Int. J. Climatol. 35(15), 4829–4842 (2015).
Koster, R. D. et al. Flash drought as captured by reanalysis data: disentangling the contributions of precipitation deficit and excess evapotranspiration. J. Hydrometeorol. 20(6), 1241–1258 (2019).
Manning, C. et al. A Multivariate Description of Compound Events of Meteorological Drought and Heat Waves[C]//EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts. 19, 17118 (2017).
Miralles, D. G., Gentine, P., Seneviratne, S. I. & Teuling, A. J. Land-atmospheric feedbacks during droughts and heatwaves: state of the science and current challenges. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1436(1), 19 (2019).
Xu, W. H. et al. Homogenization of Chinese daily surface air temperatures and analysis of trends in the extreme temperature indices. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118(17), 9708–9720 (2013).
Zhai, P. M. et al. The strong El Nino of 2015/16 and its dominant impacts on global and China’s climate. J. Meteor. Res. 30(3), 283–297 (2016).
Li, Q. X. et al. China experiences the recent warming hiatus. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42(3), 889–898 (2015).
Guttman, N. B. Accepting the standardized precipitation index: a calculation algorithm. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 35, 311–322. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.1999.tb03592.x (1999).
Palmer, W. C. Meteorological Drought. Research Paper No. 45, US Weather Bureau, Washington, DC (1965).
Song, S. Y. Tebet Climete (ed.Song, S. Y) 147 (China Meteorolocial Press, 2013).
Sun, C. X. et al. Drought occurring with hot extremes: changes under future climate change on Loess Plateau, China. Earth’s Future 7(6), 587–604 (2019).