Neurophysiological experiment

This section describes the neurophysiological experiment undertaken to acquire the data used for the validation of the neuroadaptive generative modelling approach.


Thirty-one volunteers were recruited for the study using convenience sampling from the undergraduate and postgraduate student population of the University of Helsinki. Of these, one left before completing all tasks and was removed from analysis. The rest comprised 17 males and 13 females, with an average age of 28.23 (SD = 7.14, range 18–45). The study was approved by the University of Helsinki Ethical Review Board in the Humanities and Social and Behavioural Sciences. Participants received full instruction as to the nature and purpose of the study, and were fully informed as to their rights as human participants in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki, including the right to withdraw at any time without fear of negative consequences. In return for their participation in the data acquisition part of the study, they received one cinema voucher, and another two after returning for the validation part.


The stimuli images were generated with the following process. 70,000 latent vectors were sampled from a 512-dimensional multivariate normal distribution, and their corresponding images were generated with the latent model. The sampling procedure ensured that the images represented the entire GAN space, but did not overrepresent any particular subspace. Then, the images were filtered to remove artefacts and sorted to eight categories (female, male, blond, dark hair, smile, no smile, young, old) by a human assessor, resulting in a set of 1961 stimulus images. To standardise the generated 1024 (times) 1024 pixels sized stimuli thus obtained to minimalize contribution of physical characteristics unrelated to the face (e.g. background), we applied a 746 (times) 980 silhouette cutout with the surrounding area made uniform grey (RGB 125, 125, 125). The images were then downsampled to a resolution of 512 (times) 512 pixels for data acquisition timing purposes, and presented at a distance of approximately 60 cm on a 24” LCD monitor running a resolution of 1920 (times) 1080 at 60 Hz. Image randomisation, trigger synchronisation, and response collection was handled via E-Prime 3 (Sharpsburg, PI).

Data acquisition procedure

The feature recognition task started after the participants signed informed consent. This part comprised 8 blocks across which the task was randomised between categories of relevant stimuli (female, male, blond, dark hair, smile, no smile, young, old). Each block comprised 4 rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) trials during which 20 relevant and 50 irrelevant stimuli were presented. For each task, irrelevant stimuli were always sampled from the set comprising the complementary category to the relevant task (e.g. old if young is relevant). At the beginning of the RSVP trial, participants were reminded to passively watch the images but concentrate specifically on those they noticed belonging to the relevant category. To demonstrate the task, they were also shown 4 unique stimuli, 2 of which were sampled from the relevant, 2 from the irrelevant sets, and asked to click on a relevant image. Following a 1,000 ms blank screen, the RSVP trial commenced, in which images were presented at a constant pace of 2 Hz (500 ms) without inter-stimulus interval. They were sampled randomly in groups of five with the following restrictions: no (a-priori) relevant stimulus followed another relevant stimulus, and in any sequence of five stimuli, at least one was relevant. A blank 500 ms inter-trial interval, followed by a self-terminated warning for the next, ended the trial. The experiment, including setup, took ca. 1 h to complete.

Validation procedure

All participants returned between 1 and 3 months after the data acquisition part of the study. Following signing of informed consent, participants completed 4 blocks across which the relevant and irrelevant categories were combined to form four pairs: smile vs no smile, blond vs dark-haired, young vs old, and male vs female. Within each block, two tasks were presented in sequential order. In the first task, 24 images were presented simultaneously across two rows of 12, and participants were requested to click on every image fulfilling one of the categories. Of the 24, 2 were generated from the positive model (relevant feedback), 2 were generated from the negative model (irrelevant feedback), and 20 were generated from the random model. Subsequently, they were requested to perform the same task, but for the complementary category. We analysed the percentage of times an image from the positive, random, and negative models were chosen or not chosen. In the second task, the 48 earlier presented images of the two categories were displayed in random order along with 1–5 rating scale. Following completion of all tasks across all four blocks, the participants were shown their generated images and a debriefing concluded the experiment.

EEG data acquisition and preprocessing

EEG was recorded from 32 Ag/AgCl passive electrodes with initial ground/reference at AFz, positioned on equidistant sites from the 10/20 system using an elastic cap (EasyCap). A BrainProducts QuickAmp USB was used to digitise the electric potential a sample rate of 1,000 Hz, with hardware applying a 0.01 Hz low-cut filter and an average re-referencing. To remove slow signal fluctuations and high-frequency noise from the EEG recordings, the measured EEG data were band-pass filtered for the frequency range 0.2–35 Hz with a Fir1 filter. After filtering, the data were split to baseline corrected epochs ranging from − 200 to 900 ms time-locked to stimulus onset. A simple threshold-based heuristic was used to remove transient artefacts from the data, such as those caused by eye blinks. This led to the removal of approximately 11% of each participants’ epochs with the highest absolute maximum voltage. Finally, the data was decimated with a factor of four to speed up classifier training procedures. The final dataset consisted of on average 3,251 epochs per participant. Supplementary Table S1 provides per-participant recorded/dropped epoch counts and voltage threshold values used for removing contaminated epochs.

Neuroadaptive generative modelling implementation

This section follows the formal definition of the neuroadaptive generative modelling approach. It defines the latent model G, brain signal classification function f, and the intent model updating function h. Additionally, the classification performance tests are described.

Generative latent model

A pre-trained Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) was used to generate the face images24(source code and pre-trained models are available at: Essentially, GANs consist of a generator (G) and a discriminator (D)15. During the training of a GAN, G and D are trained simultaneously, so that the objective of D is to determine whether its input is from the original training set or not. Conversely, G tries to “fool” D by generating output resembling the original training set more closely. Feeding G’s output to D as input results in a game between D and G, which can be leveraged to train the generator to produce high-quality output from an internal representation (latent space). The GAN used in this study was pre-trained with the CelebA-HQ dataset, which consists of 30,000 (1{,}024 times 1{,}024) images of celebrity faces24. The CelebA-HQ dataset is a resolution-enhanced version of the CelebA-dataset41. The generator part G of the aforementioned GAN provided the mapping (G: Z rightarrow X), where (z in Z) is a 512-dimensional latent vector and (x in X) is a (1{,}024 times 1{,}024) image.

Brain signal classification

The classification function (f: S rightarrow Y) was implemented with Regularized Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifiers42 trained for each of the participants. The regularization parameters for the classifiers were chosen with the Ledoit–Wolf lemma43. The classifiers were trained with vectorized representations of the ERPs ((S_n)) along with a binary label indicating class membership (relevant/irrelevant for task). The vectorized representation of the ERPs consisted of spatio-temporal features, namely all available 32 channels and 7 averaged equidistant time-windows in the 50–800 ms post-stimuli interval. A classifier was trained for each participant and task separately. The task-specific classifier was trained with data collected during all of the tasks performed by the participant, excluding the reverse task. For instance, a classifier predicting the labels for the blond task was trained with data from the tasks male, female, young, old, smile, and no smile. The reverse task was excluded from the training set to ensure that the training and test sets do not contain brain responses for the same stimuli images. To reduce the number of false positives, only predictions with a confidence score exceeding 0.7 for the relevant class were considered positive. The positive predictions received a value of (f(s) = 1), while the negative predictions received a value of (f(s) = 0). Thus, (Y = {0,1}).

Classifier evaluation

The classifier performance was measured with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC), and evaluated by permutation-based p values acquired by comparing the AUC scores to those of classifiers trained with randomly permutated class labels25. (k = 100) permutations were run per participant, leading to a minimum possible p value of 0.0144. The AUC scores of the classifiers can be seen in Supplementary Figure S1.

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