Moore, M. P., Whiteman, H. H. & Martin, R. A. A mother’s legacy: The strength of maternal effects in animal populations. Ecol. Lett. 22, 1620–1628 (2019).
Yin, J. J., Zhou, M., Lin, Z. R., Li, Q. S. Q. & Zhang, Y. Y. Transgenerational effects benefit offspring across diverse environments: A meta-analysis in plants and animals. Ecol. Lett. 22, 1976–1986 (2019).
Groothuis, T. G. G., Hsu, B.-Y., Kumar, N. & Tschirren, B. Revisiting mechanisms and functions of prenatal hormone-mediated maternal effects using avian species as a model. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 374, 20180115 (2019).
Ruuskanen, S. & Hsu, B.-Y. Maternal thyroid hormones: An unexplored mechanism underlying maternal effects in an ecological framework. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 91, 904–916 (2018).
Meylan, S., Miles, D. B. & Clobert, J. Hormonally mediated maternal effects, individual strategy and global change. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 367, 1647–1664 (2012).
Donelson, J. M., Salinas, S., Munday, P. L. & Shama, L. N. S. Transgenerational plasticity and climate change experiments: Where do we go from here?. Glob. Change Biol. 24, 13–34 (2018).
Ruuskanen, S., Hsu, B.-Y. & Nord, A. Endocrinology of thermoregulation of birds in a changing climate. https://doi.org/10.32942/osf.io/jzam3 (2020).
Sheriff, M. J. et al. Integrating ecological and evolutionary context in the study of maternal stress. Integr. Comp. Biol. 57, 437–449 (2017).
Schoech, S. J., Rensel, M. A. & Heiss, R. S. Short- and long-term effects of developmental corticosterone exposure on avian physiology, behavioral phenotype, cognition, and fitness: A review. Curr. Zool. 57, 514–530 (2011).
Love, O. P. & Williams, T. D. The adaptive value of stress-induced phenotypes: Effects of maternally derived corticosterone on sex-biased investment, cost of reproduction, and maternal fitness. Am. Nat. 172, E135–E149 (2008).
Weber, B. M. et al. Pre- and postnatal effects of experimentally manipulated maternal corticosterone on growth, stress reactivity and survival of nestling house wrens. Funct. Ecol. 32, 1995–2007 (2018).
Dantzer, B. et al. Density triggers maternal hormones that increase adaptive offspring growth in a wild mammal. Science 340, 1215–1217 (2013).
Zimmer, C., Boogert, N. J. & Spencer, K. A. Developmental programming: Cumulative effects of increased pre-hatching corticosterone levels and post-hatching unpredictable food availability on physiology and behaviour in adulthood. Horm. Behav. 64, 494–500 (2013).
Muriel, J. et al. Context-dependent effects of yolk androgens on nestling growth and immune function in a multibrooded passerine. J. Evol. Biol. 28, 1476–1488 (2015).
Gil, D. Hormones in avian eggs: Physiology, ecology and behavior. Adv. Study Behav. 38, 337–398 (2008).
Hsu, B.-Y., Doligez, B., Gustafsson, L. & Ruuskanen, S. Transient growth-enhancing effects of elevated maternal thyroid hormones at no apparent oxidative cost during early postnatal period. J. Avian Biol. 50, jav-01919 (2019).
Sarraude, T., Hsu, B.-Y., Groothuis, T. G. G. & Ruuskanen, S. Manipulation of prenatal thyroid hormones does not influence growth or physiology in nestling pied flycatchers. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 93, 255–266 (2020).
Hsu, B.-Y., Dijkstra, C., Darras, V. M., de Vries, B. & Groothuis, T. G. G. Maternal thyroid hormones enhance hatching success but decrease nestling body mass in the rock pigeon (Columba livia). Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 240, 174–181 (2017).
Auer, S. K., Salin, K., Rudolf, A. M., Anderson, G. J. & Metcalfe, N. B. The optimal combination of standard metabolic rate and aerobic scope for somatic growth depends on food availability. Funct. Ecol. 29, 479–486 (2015).
McNabb, F. M. A. The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis in birds and its role in bird development and reproduction. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37, 163–193 (2007).
Price, E. R. & Dzialowski, E. M. Development of endothermy in birds: Patterns and mechanisms. J. Comp. Physiol. B 188, 373–391 (2018).
Ruuskanen, S. et al. Temperature-induced variation in yolk androgen and thyroid hormone levels in avian eggs. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 235, 29–37 (2016).
Stier, A., Bize, P., Hsu, B.-Y. & Ruuskanen, S. Plastic but repeatable: Rapid adjustments of mitochondrial function and density during reproduction in a wild bird species. Biol. Lett. 15, 20190536 (2019).
Salin, K., Auer, S. K., Rey, B., Selman, C. & Metcalfe, N. B. Variation in the link between oxygen consumption and ATP production, and its relevance for animal performance. Proc. R. Soc. B 282, 20151028 (2015).
Lassiter, K., Dridi, S., Greene, E., Kong, B. & Bottje, W. G. Identification of mitochondrial hormone receptors in avian muscle cells. Poult. Sci. 97, 2926–2933 (2018).
Lanni, A., Moreno, M. & Goglia, F. Mitochondrial actions of thyroid hormone. Compr. Physiol. 6, 1591–1607 (2016).
Weitzel, J. M. & Iwen, K. A. Coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis by thyroid hormone. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 342, 1–7 (2011).
Clarke, A. & Portner, H. O. Temperature, metabolic power and the evolution of endothermy. Biol. Rev. 85, 703–727 (2010).
Xia, T., Zhang, X., Wang, Y. & Deng, D. Effect of maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy on insulin resistance, lipid accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle of fetal rats. Biosci. Rep. 38, BSR20171731 (2018).
Halliwell, B. & Gutteridge, J. M. C. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine (Oxford University Press, New York, 2015).
Villanueva, I., Alva-Sanchez, C. & Pacheco-Rosado, J. The role of thyroid hormones as inductors of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2013, 218145 (2013).
Stier, A. et al. Elevation impacts the balance between growth and oxidative stress in coal tits. Oecologia 175, 791–800 (2014).
Stier, A., Massemin, S. & Criscuolo, F. Chronic mitochondrial uncoupling treatment prevents acute cold-induced oxidative stress in birds. J. Comp. Physiol. B 184, 1021–1029 (2014).
Andreasson, F., Nord, A. & Nilsson, J. -Å. Experimentally increased nest temperature affects body temperature, growth and apparent survival in blue tit nestlings. J. Avian Biol. 49, jav-01620 (2018).
Podmokła, E., Drobniak, S. M. & Rutkowska, J. Chicken or egg? Outcomes of experimental manipulations of maternally transmitted hormones depend on administration method—a meta-analysis. Biol. Rev. 93, 1499–1517 (2018).
Lundberg, A. & Alatalo, R. The Pied Flycatcher (Poyser, London, 1992).
Haggerty, T. M. Effects of nestling age and brood size on nestling care in the Bachman’s sparrow (Aimophila aestivalis). Am. Midl. Nat. 128, 115–125 (1992).
Chastel, O. & Kersten, M. Brood size and body condition in the house sparrow Passer domesticus: The influence of brooding behaviour. Ibis 144, 284–292 (2002).
Ruuskanen, S. et al. A new method for measuring thyroid hormones using nano-LC-MS/MS. J. Chromatogr. B 1093–1094, 24–30 (2018).
Chang, H.-W. et al. High-throughput avian molecular sexing by SYBR green-based real-time PCR combined with melting curve analysis. BMC Biotechnol. 8, 12 (2008).
Bates, D., Maechler, M., Bolker, B. & Walker, S. Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. J. Stat. Softw. 67, 1–48 (2015).
Halekoh, U. & Højsgaard, S. Kenward–Roger approximation and parametric bootstrap methods for tests in linear mixed models—the R package pbkrtest. J. Stat. Softw. 59, 1–32 (2014).
Schielzeth, H. Simple means to improve the interpretability of regression coefficients. Methods Ecol. Evol. 1, 103–113 (2010).
Ruuskanen, S., Darras, V. M., Visser, M. E. & Groothuis, T. G. G. Effects of experimentally manipulated yolk thyroid hormone levels on offspring development in a wild bird species. Horm. Behav. 81, 38–44 (2016).
Rodríguez, S., Diez-Méndez, D. & Barba, E. Negative effects of high temperatures during development on immediate post-fledging survival in great tits Parus major. Acta Ornithol. 51, 235–244 (2016).
Rodríguez, S. & Barba, E. Nestling growth is impaired by heat stress: An experimental study in a Mediterranean great tit population. Zool. Stud. 55, 13 (2016).
Dawson, R. D., Lawrie, C. C. & O’Brien, E. L. The importance of microclimate variation in determining size, growth and survival of avian offspring: Experimental evidence from a cavity nesting passerine. Oecologia 144, 499–507 (2005).
Stier, A., Massemin, S., Zahn, S., Tissier, M. L. & Criscuolo, F. Starting with a handicap: Effects of asynchronous hatching on growth rate, oxidative stress and telomere dynamics in free-living great tits. Oecologia 179, 999–1010 (2015).
Wikelski, M. & Cooke, S. J. Conservation physiology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21, 38–46 (2006).
Darras, V. M. The role of maternal thyroid hormones in avian embryonic development. Front. Endocrinol. 10, 66 (2019).
Huget-Penner, S. & Feig, D. S. Maternal thyroid disease and its effects on the fetus and perinatal outcomes. Prenat. Diagn. https://doi.org/10.1002/pd.5684 (2020).
Kulkami, S. S. & Buchholz, K. R. Beyond synergy: Corticosterone and thyroid hormone have numerous interaction effects on gene regulation in Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles. Endocrinology 153, 5309–5324 (2012).
Watanabe, Y., Grommern, S. V. H. & de Groef, B. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage trasitions?. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 228, 60–68 (2016).
Sechman, A. The role of thyroid hormones in regulation of chicken ovarian steroidogenesis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 190, 68–75 (2013).
Flood, D. E. K., Fernandino, J. I. & Langlois, V. S. Thyroid hormones in male reproductive develoment: Evidence for direct crosstalk between the androgen and thyroid hormones axes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 192, 2–14 (2013).
Duarte-Guterman, P., Navarro-Martín, L. & Trudeau, V. L. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: Regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 203, 69–85 (2014).
Stier, A. et al. How to measure mitochondrial function in birds using red blood cells: A case study in the king penguin and perspectives in ecology and evolution. Methods Ecol. Evol. 8, 1172–1182 (2017).