IntroductionRutting occurs easily in areas with high temperatures and rain during summer. Therefore, modifying the bitumen or hot asphalt mixture (HMA) is necessary for improving the rutting resistance and water stability. On the one hand, previous antirutting modifiers have achieved good results, albeit with high cost, which does not promote the use of low-cost roads. On the other hand, many agricultural, industrial, and domestic wastes lack a wide range of applications, thus occupying storage space and causing environmental pollution. Nowadays, waste materials increasingly are used in asphalt pavement construction as new additives, which makes asphalt pavement composed of waste materials a popular research topic in the field of road construction (Lv et al. 2021; Mahssin et al. 2021; Niu et al. 2021). In addition, the traditional design method of HMA uses different levels of a single factor to observe the influence of variables at different levels; this requires many experiments and consumes time and resources (Yıldırım and Karacasu 2019). Therefore, it is necessary to use scientific experimental design methods to establish a performance prediction model for a HMA that uses waste materials to obtain the optimal solution of resources, costs, and performance in practice.More than 800 million waste tires are abandoned each year globally, with an annual increase of 4%. Approximately 13 million scrap tires are produced annually in China, with an annual growth rate of 6%–8% (Li et al. 2020). The comprehensive utilization of waste tires in China includes renovation (Xu et al. 2020), reclaimed rubber (Lin et al. 2020), rubber powder (Liu et al. 2020), and pyrolysis. Compared with the other three disposal methods (Xu et al. 2020; Li et al. 2020; Lin et al. 2020), pyrolysis can degrade the organic components in rubber powder and generate volatile substances and solid coke. The main components of volatile substances are combustible gas and combustible oil, which can be used for energy supply. Thus, pyrolysis is environmentally friendly, generates no secondary pollution, and allows multiple resource recycling (Li et al. 2019; Tian et al. 2021). However, limited by the current waste tire pyrolysis technology in China, the quality of pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) produced is poor, resulting in fewer commercial PCB applications. As early as 1995, researchers used PCB to prepare modified bitumen and discovered that PCBs in bitumen had rheological properties similar to those of mineral powder (Lesueur et al. 1995). Since then, researchers have found that PCBs significantly improve the high-temperature performance and UV aging resistance of bitumen (Feng et al. 2016). In addition, the adhesion of bitumen is enhanced owing to the high free energy of the PCB surface (Tanzadeh and Shafabakhsh 2020). However, PCBs weaken the interface force between the bitumen and aggregate, which leads to a decrease in the low-temperature crack resistance (Feng et al. 2021). In addition, PCBs are not soluble in bitumen and organic solvents, which reduces the storage stability of modified bitumen, resulting in the difficulty of long-distance transportation of PCB-modified bitumen (Feng et al. 2021; Li et al. 2020).Chicken is the most-consumed poultry in the world, constituting approximately 65 million tons/year and producing 5 million tons of waste chicken feathers (WCFs) (Mu et al. 2020). Usually, WCFs in China are converted into compost or low-characteristic animal nutrients through waste disposal stations (Casadesús et al. 2018). However, due to animal disease concerns, Chinese regulations restrict the amount of WCF in animal feed, resulting in WCF piles in slaughterhouses and environmental pollution. Researchers have studied the thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties of WCFs and found that they can be used in electrical insulation materials, geotextiles, and building materials (Tesfaye et al. 2017).The most recommended application is to replace building materials with WCFs (Araya-Letelier et al. 2020; Šafarič et al. 2020). WCF has good heat and sound insulation when used in a composite fiberboard (Šafarič et al. 2020). The compressive and tensile strengths of cement concrete reinforced with WCFs are improved (Wahab and Osmi 2012). The study of WCF-modified bitumen shows that the addition of 2% WCF to base bitumen gives rheological properties similar to those of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified bitumen and has better storage stability (Rivera-Armenta et al. 2020). Furthermore, the research on WCF-enhanced HMA indicates that the addition of WCF can improve the rutting resistance and water stability of HMA (Dalhat et al. 2020). However, the effect of the WCF fiber preparation process on the performance of HMA remains unclear. Studies have shown that the length and diameter of steel fibers significantly influence the low-temperature crack resistance of HMA (Park et al. 2015).Response surface methodology (RSM) is a combination of mathematical and statistical methods which is used to model and analyze the response, affected by multiple variables, to optimize a reaction (Montgomery 2017). Second-order equations typically are used to establish models between responses and factors. Although this model is approximate, it can be used to analyze the response value of a given variable and determine the significance of the factors and interactions between factors to predict the maximum or minimum response under certain interactions of multiple factors (Bradley 2007; Haghshenas et al. 2015; Khuri and Mukhopadhyay 2010). In the research and development tests of bitumen and HMA-modified materials, the typical independent variables of RSM are the proportion of additives, temperature, key sieve pass rate, and bitumen dosage. The dependent variable usually is the performance test results for bitumen or HMA (Bala et al. 2020; Wang et al. 2018). The Box–Behnken method (BBD) in RSM requires fewer test iterations and has good applicability to complex experiments (Hill and Hunter 1966). Many researchers have used the BBD method to study the performance prediction models of bitumen and HMA (Liao et al. 2021; Lv et al. 2020; Zhang et al. 2016). The central composite design (CCD) method has better sequentiality and prediction ability than the BBD method, but it requires more test iterations (Adnan et al. 2020; Hamzah et al. 2013; Rafiq et al. 2021; Zolgharnein et al. 2013).In summary, two of the main obstacles to the large-scale application of PCBs in the road construction field are the decrease in the low-temperature crack resistance and decreased storage stability of PCB-modified bitumen. If the PCB is mixed with bitumen and aggregate using a dry-mixing method, a decrease in storage stability is avoided (Yucel et al. 2021); however, this method is not free of drawbacks. PCB is a type of submicron particle. The dry-mixing method struggles to disperse agglomerate PCB materials (Naseri 2021), making it difficult to enhance the performance of bitumen effectively. Moreover, PCBs filling HMA voids can easily flow out with rainwater, resulting in a decrease in water stability (Guan et al. 2021). WCF has 2.5 times more fibers than wool and silk (Mu et al. 2020). This characteristic is conducive to solving the problems of dispersion and water stability decline of dry mixing and improving the low-temperature crack resistance of HMA. However, different varieties of WCFs have different physical properties. Even when a given WCF undergoes different treatment processes, its performance varies. Therefore, it is necessary to apply the response surface method (RSM) in the mix design procedure to investigate the influence of PCB and WCF on the performance of HMA. This study examined the effects of PCB dosage, WCF dosage, WCF shear time, and asphalt–aggregate ratio on the performance of PCB- and WCF-reinforced HMA using the CCD method in Minitab version 19.1 software to provide a performance prediction model.References Adnan, A. M., X. Luo, C. Lü, J. Wang, and Z. 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