AbstractThis paper aims at compiling the most relevant information concerning the use of cement-based mortars and concretes in the rehabilitation, retrofitting, and strengthening of hydraulic structures, namely concrete dams. The most important properties of cement-based mortars and concretes as repair materials are addressed, with a special focus on its compatibility with the concrete substrate. After a brief allusion to generic preparatory works, some of the most common practices are described. The main topics are mortar and concrete toppings, i.e., patches and overlays and thickening of the dam section. Among overlays, shotcrete and underwater works are addressed in detail. Littlerock, Oberems, and Storfinnforsen dam interventions are briefly described as successful rehabilitations involving the shotcrete method, whereas the Albbruck-Dogern dam intervention is given as an example of effective underwater repair works. As for dam section modifications, Kölnbrein, Olef, and Sasanagare dams are presented as conventional mass concrete placements within rehabilitation operations, while Les Toules, Gibraltar, Santa Cruz, and Littlerock dams are references for roller compacted concrete strengthening.