AbstractInspections are important to ensuring adequate safety and performance of a bridge throughout its service life. Bridge inspections are highly connected with maintenance decisions and can help in managing maintenance activities while maintaining a reliable bridge network. Routine inspections are the most common type of highway bridge inspections in the United States. The National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS) requires that, for almost all bridges, a routine inspection should be conducted at least every 24 months. However, limitations of current bridge inspection practices impact the quality of information provided about bridge conditions and the subsequent decisions made based on that information. Much research in the field of bridge inspection planning has been conducted to assist bridge inspectors in the inspection planning process and improving routine inspections. Accordingly, the goal of this study is to provide an overview on current bridge inspection practices in the United States and conduct a systematic literature review on innovations in the field bridge inspections planning while investigating research gaps and future needs. This paper provides a background on the history of bridge inspection in the United States, including current bridge inspection practices and their limitations and analyzes the connections between nondestructive evaluation techniques, deterioration models, and bridge inspection management. The primary emphasis of the paper is a thorough analysis of research proposing and investigating different methodologies for inspection planning and scheduling. Studies were analyzed and categorized into three main types of inspection planning approaches, based on: reliability, risk-analysis, and optimization approaches. The study revealed gaps and limitations in the current proposed techniques for inspection planning. The findings of this review will help in characterizing the current state of bridge inspection programs and future research needs to enhance inspection programs and reduce the gap between inspection practice and research.