AbstractResearch on the aging process of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers (SBS) block copolymers modifier has practical significance in guiding the recycling of SBS-modified asphalt pavement. The objective of this study is to investigate the aging process of SBS modifier under various oxygen and thermal conditions to address the variations of physical properties and chemical reaction during the service life of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP). In the proposed testing process, SBS modifier was thermal oxidative and vacuum thermal aged at different temperatures and time prior to blending with base asphalt to prepare SBS-modified asphalt. SBS modifier was first dissolved by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and then tested through infrared (IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and thermogravimetric (TGA) tests to investigate the variations on microstructure and chemical compositions of aged SBS modifier. The effect of aged SBS modifier on performance of SBS-modified asphalt was evaluated by comparing the mechanical and chemical properties of base and SBS-modified asphalts. Based on the results of the experimental program, appearance variation, modifying effects, and chemical reaction of SBS modifier under oxygen condition were obviously different from that of vacuum condition. The chemical reaction of SBS modifier was not significant at vacuum and high temperature condition, instead, a small amount of degradation was observed. Degradation of mechanical performance of SBS-modified asphalt was mainly caused by aging of base asphalt. Therefore, the SBS modifier in the RAP was suggested to be considered in the mixture design.