AbstractGiven the dynamic and complex nature of a construction site, the ability to recognize hazards in a surrounding environment is highly associated with worker safety. While many studies have examined the hazard identification skills of workers, researchers have not yet explored how the dynamic nature of hazards impacts workers’ hazard anticipation, hazard identification, and cognitive perception of hazards within dynamic construction scenarios. This study investigates (1) whether hazard characteristics (i.e., static versus dynamic) impact workers’ hazard identification performance; and (2) how two cognitive steps (i.e., attention and perception) influence hazard identification performance for these dynamic hazards. Employing state-of-the-art 360° video panoramas, this study performed an empirical investigation experiment to assess 30 construction workers’ hazard identification skills and corresponding attention and perception behaviors. The results of this study indicate that worker’s hazard identification abilities are affected by the static and/or dynamic nature of hazards: Generally, workers better anticipate dynamic hazards thanks to target and context anticipatory cues. In addition, a major discriminator between workers with higher hazard identification skills and those with lower hazard identification skills for dynamic hazards manifested in their continuous awareness of hazardous situations and proper prediction of emerging or potential hazards. Beyond identifying these factors, this study discusses multiple reasons underpinning attentional failures and misperception. The study highlights the importance of applying an integrated personalized training program to address cognitive failures and hazard anticipation skills to improve occupational safety in the construction industry.