AbstractOne of the major risks to civil structures during an earthquake is the occurrence of liquefaction in loose saturated sand deposits. The main consequences of liquefaction include lateral spreading deformations and postliqufaction reconsolidation settlement. In situ tests, such as standard penetration tests (SPTs), commonly are used in one-dimensional models for estimating liquefaction-induced deformation, which provide ground deformation only at limited locations at which SPTs are performed. However, magnitudes of liquefaction-induced ground deformation within a specific site may exhibit significant spatial variation when subsurface soils are not homogeneous or when they vary spatially within a site. Therefore, using the ground deformations estimated from limited SPT locations to represent a whole site might provide misleading results and cannot properly predict the differential ground settlement or displacement, posing a significant risk to civil structures. To deal with this challenge, a novel approach was developed in this study for characterizing spatial variation of the soil lateral spreading displacement and reconsolidation settlement in a cross section of a specific site from limited SPTs with consideration of soil spatial variability along both depth and the horizontal direction. The proposed method was illustrated using both simulated data and real data.

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