AbstractBetter understanding of the connection between piles and pile caps/footings is needed so that future designs and design reviews can be adequately performed. This review paper presented discussions on the published experimental and analytical studies on prestressed concrete piles, steel H-piles, or steel pipe piles with cast-in-place (CIP) or precast footings, and/or pile cap connections with a focus on (1) pile embedment to achieve a fully fixed or pinned moment connection; (2) behavior of the pile embedment length when not treated by a special connection detail; and (3) reinforcement details to decrease the embedment length and develop fixity with a plain pile. The length of the pile embedment contributing to achieving a full fixity condition has a critical impact on substructure cost involving pile-to-pile cap (PTPC) connections. The design procedures involving piles subjected to lateral loading require a proper understanding of the fixity and ductility levels provided by the PTPC connections. Discussions on finite-element analyses (FEAs) were presented, including behavior predictions of the connections at both global and local levels. The study points to the need for modifications to the design of the PTPC connections in the existing standard codes/specifications.