AbstractPark-and-ride (P&R) and transit-oriented development (TOD) are two major strategies to leverage the high capacity of rail transit systems in urban areas. Both rooted in the station-area land, the two strategies must be reconciled in an integrated planning framework. To this end, a bilevel programming model is proposed to tackle the competitive location issue of P&R and TOD near rail transit stations: the upper level is a 0–1 programming model, simulating governmental land-use decision-making behavior with the objective of maximizing metro patronage and minimizing vehicle kilometers traveled, or minimizing vehicle hours of delay; and the lower level is the multimodal network equilibrium model, simulating travelers’ responses and assigning traffic and passenger flows in the network. The traffic analysis zones containing rail stations are divided into transit station areas and auto-oriented zones. The household residential relocation model, accessibility quantitative model, and generation-distribution joint model are used to describe the complex interactions between transit system and land-use development near rail stations. A hypothetical scenario is designed to quantitatively analyze the impacts of different station-based land-use decisions and parameters of population and employment densities. A real case study is presented to illustrate the implementation of the proposed model.

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