AbstractA combined experimental and analytical investigation was conducted at the University of Ottawa to assess the performance of blast-resistant window retention anchors to generate design information. The experimental phase of research involved 46 full-scale window tests with different parameters. The analytical investigation included numerical modeling and dynamic analysis of windows to expand the experimental results and to assess the significance of design parameters. Computer software LS-DYNA was selected for the analyses. Analytical models of selected test windows with aspect ratios of 1.0 and 3.0 anchored on structural steel, reinforced concrete, concrete block masonry, and stone masonry substrates were modeled. The models were validated against experimental data. Additional windows with aspect ratios of 1.5 and 2.0 were also modeled for investigation. The models were used to conduct a parametric investigation with the parameters consisting of substrate flexibility, anchor fixity conditions, window size and aspect ratio, frame rigidity, number and spacing of anchors, and the threat level as defined by reflected pressure-impulse combinations. The significance of each parameter is illustrated with emphasis placed on the magnitude of anchor shear and tension design forces. The distribution of anchor forces is obtained numerically. Anchor forces and distributions are compared with those observed experimentally. Design force distribution along the perimeter of window frames is recommended for use in design. The paper provides the results of numerical simulations illustrating the significance of design parameters on anchor design force levels and their distributions.

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