AbstractBore impact on horizontal fixed decks of coastal structures is studied by use of the Level I Green–Naghdi (GN) equations and the Navier–Stokes (NS) equations. The bore is generated by the breaking of a water reservoir, and may represent the propagation of a tsunami on land or broken storm waves. The bore-induced horizontal and vertical forces are determined and their variation with the bore and deck conditions is studied in this work. Various conditions of deck location with respect to the water level are considered, including cases with the deck under or above the still-water level. Two types of bore are considered, namely (i) a bore generated by a dam break, where the reservoir water depth is substantially larger than the downstream depth, and (ii) a bore generated by an initial mound of water, where the reservoir water depth is comparable to the downstream depth. It is shown that these mechanisms result in the formation of significantly different bore shapes. It is also shown that the relative height of the reservoir and the downstream water depth play a significant role in the bore generation and its impact on coastal structures. It is also found that the bore-induced forces vary almost linearly with the change in amplitude of the reservoir, while a change in the length of the reservoir has little effect on the loads. The horizontal force on submerged decks is shown to be independent of the submergence depth of the deck; this is due to the uniform velocity distribution over the water column of the bore. Results of the GN and NS models are compared with each other for submerged cases and the limitations, accuracy, and efficiency of these models in studying this problem are discussed. Results of the GN equations are in close agreement with the NS equations, making them a computationally efficient alternative for the study of this problem.