AbstractNatural fibers have become a research hotspot in composite materials recently. This study investigated the axial compressive behavior of predamaged concrete repaired by jute fiber–reinforced polymer (JFRP) composites. Basalt FRP (BFRP) was also utilized to repair the predamaged concrete for comparison. Thirty FRP-jacketed concrete cylinders with a diameter of 150 mm and a height of 300 mm were designed and fabricated. Plain concrete cylinders were axially preloaded to three predamage levels, then repaired by JFRP and BFRP composites, and reloaded to evaluate the compressive behavior after repair. The results showed that the predamage of concrete had a noticeable adverse effect on the compressive behavior of JFRP- and BFRP-repaired concrete. Compared with the JFRP-jacketed intact concrete, the compressive strength and initial elastic modulus of the JFRP-repaired predamaged concrete decreased by 6%–18% and 16%–54%, respectively. However, the compressive strength and ultimate strain of the predamaged concrete were still improved by 5%–41% and 82%–291% after JFRP repair, respectively, when compared with those of the plain concrete. On the contrary, the ultimate axial strain and lateral strain capacities of JFRP- and BFRP-repaired concrete were insignificantly affected by the concrete predamage. Under similar confinement ratios, the compressive strengths of JFRP- and BFRP-jacketed intact concrete were close to each other, whereas the axial strain–lateral strain relationship and the variations of the Poisson’s ratios were highly dependent on the FRP types and the number of FRP layers. Based on the test results and data collected from the open literature, an ultimate strength model, an ultimate axial strain model, and a stress–strain relationship model were newly developed for JFRP-repaired predamaged concrete.