AbstractThe capabilities (e.g., basic capabilities, professional capabilities, and lean consciousness of workers) and benefits (e.g., time, economy, and quality benefits) of lean construction in some precast building projects are insufficiently coordinated due to the moderating effects of multiple variables. Revealing the relationship among these variables, lean construction capabilities, and lean construction benefits is necessary to solve this problem. Hence, this study identified the three variables of construction complexity, management, and policies from the existing literature and proposed seven hypotheses regarding the relationships among them, lean construction capabilities, and lean construction benefits. On the basis of these hypotheses, a theoretical model of the coupling relationship between lean construction capabilities and benefits for precast buildings under multivariable moderation was established. The theoretical model was tested using 206 valid ones of 292 questionnaires and multiple methods, such as principal component, confirmatory factor, and hierarchical regression analyses. The research results showed the existence of a positive coupling relationship between the capabilities and benefits of lean construction, with a path coefficient of 0.71. Moreover, with higher construction complexity and better management and policies, lean construction benefits have a more significant positive impact on lean construction capabilities. Construction companies should create a benign and sustainable ecology that promotes the mutual transformation of lean construction capabilities and benefits, and workers should be encouraged to participate in construction training with higher complexity to improve their lean construction capabilities. Better management practices and policies, such as flat and specialized organizational structures, flexible and standardized management specifications, lean and information technology, training subsidies, prohibition of subcontracting without qualifications, engineering procurement construction (EPC), and integrated project delivery (IPD), are recommended to ensure the improvement of lean construction capabilities and benefits for prefabricated buildings. The aforementioned research results complement previous studies on the one-way influence of the relationship between construction capabilities and benefits from the perspective of coupling and moderating effects.