AbstractSubstituting organic fertilizer for chemical fertilizer is widely viewed as an effective path to promoting sustainable agricultural development amidst the imminent threat of climate change. This paper investigates the effect of government intervention and market incentives on farmers’ organic fertilizer application behavior (FOFAB), using survey data from Xinjiang, China. The results show that, first, three sub-dimensional variables of government intervention, namely policy publicity, fiscal subsidies, and regulation constraints, all have a significantly positive impact on FOFAB, and that fiscal subsidy ranks first in terms of influencing the degree of the effect. Second, there is a mediating effect of market incentives on the relationship between government intervention and FOFAB via three paths, namely the market price of organic fertilizer, the cost of applying organic fertilizer, and market demand for organic food. The most significant mechanism is that fiscal subsidies have a positive influence on FOFAB by activating market demand for organic food, reducing the cost of applying organic fertilizer, and promoting the market price of organic food. In addition, the variables of family endowments have a steady and significant effect on FOFAB. Social networks did not exert a positive effect on FOFAB. Therefore, the local government should incentivize governmental intervention measures to improve the market competition mechanism, encourage more farmers to join agricultural cooperatives, and expand social networks to facilitate FOFAB.