AbstractThis paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments, by placing a turbulent wall jet in the upstream and downstream of a 90° channel bend, to investigate the effects of secondary flow on formation of local sediment erosion and deposition. The effects of jet and current flow intensities on the erosion pattern were characterized by the jet’s Reynolds number, Re, channel Froude number, Fr, and the ratio of water depth to nozzle diameter, h/do. The geometrical characteristics of local erosion such as jet trajectory, maximum scour depth, ds, and maximum mound height, hm, were measured. The area and volume of scours and mounds were calculated from measurements, and the results were correlated with the controlling parameters. Experimental observations indicated the existence of distinct scour patterns due to variations of channel Froude number. Two additional scour holes were identified due to the effect of stream interactions and formation of vortex regions immediately downstream of sediment mound. It was found that both channel and jet flows contributed to trajectory of the jet and the footprint of erosion. A threshold Froude number of Fr=0.091 was identified at which the current and jet flow were in equilibrium. The results showed that for a constant value of Fr, all scour parameters increased with increasing Reynolds number. However, Re did not have any effects on the jet’s deflection. Comparing the erosion profiles in the upstream and downstream bend indicated that the secondary current and turbulent redistribution altered the erosion and mound formation in the downstream of the bend in relatively high Reynolds (i.e., Re≥23,000), high channel Froude numbers (i.e., Fr>0.091) and high jet submergence (i.e., h/do>10.53).

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