Zeng, F. G., Rebscher, S., Harrison, W., Sun, X. & Feng, H. Cochlear implants: system design, integration, and evaluation. IEEE Rev. Biomed. Eng. 1, 115–142 (2008).
Spriet, A. et al. Speech understanding in background noise with the two-microphone adaptive beamformer BEAM in the nucleus freedom cochlear implant system. Ear. Hear. 28, 62–72 (2007).
Wouters, J. & Vanden Berghe, J. Speech recognition in noise for cochlear implantees with a two-microphone monaural adaptive noise reduction system. Ear. Hear. 22, 420–430 (2001).
Verschuur, C. A., Lutman, M. E., Ramsden, R., Greenham, P. & O’Driscoll, M. Auditory localization abilities in bilateral cochlear implant recipients. Otol. Neurotol. 26, 965–971 (2005).
Wilson, B. S. Getting a decent (but sparse) signal to the brain for users of cochlear implants. Hear. Res. 322, 24–38 (2015).
Fletcher, M. D., Hadeedi, A., Goehring, T. & Mills, S. R. Electro-haptic enhancement of speech-in-noise performance in cochlear implant users. Sci. Rep. 9, 11428 (2019).
Huang, J., Sheffield, B., Lin, P. & Zeng, F. G. Electro-tactile stimulation enhances cochlear implant speech recognition in noise. Sci. Rep. 7, 2196 (2017).
Fletcher, M. D., Cunningham, R. O. & Mills, S. R. Electro-haptic enhancement of spatial hearing in cochlear implant users. Sci. Rep. 10, 1621 (2020).
Fletcher, M. D., Mills, S. R. & Goehring, T. Vibro-tactile enhancement of speech intelligibility in multi-talker noise for simulated cochlear implant listening. Trends Hear. 22, 1–11 (2018).
Fletcher, M. D., Thini, N. & Perry, S. W. Enhanced pitch discrimination for cochlear implant users with a new haptic neuroprosthetic. Sci. Rep. 11, 10354 (2020).
Dirks, D. D. & Wilson, R. H. The effect of spatially separated sound sources on speech intelligibility. J. Speech Hear. Res 12, 5–38 (1969).
MacKeith, N. W. & Coles, R. R. Binaural advantages in hearing of speech. J. Laryngol. Otol. 85, 213–232 (1971).
Bronkhorst, A. W. & Plomp, R. The effect of head-induced interaural time and level differences on speech intelligibility in noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 83, 1508–1516 (1988).
Peters, B. R., Wyss, J. & Manrique, M. Worldwide trends in bilateral cochlear implantation. Laryngoscope 120(Suppl 2), 17–44 (2010).
Litovsky, R. Y. et al. Bilateral cochlear implants in children: localization acuity measured with minimum audible angle. Ear Hear. 27, 43–59 (2006).
Muller, J., Schon, F. & Helms, J. Speech understanding in quiet and noise in bilateral users of the MED-EL COMBI 40/40+ cochlear implant system. Ear Hear. 23, 198–206 (2002).
Tyler, R. S. et al. Three-month results with bilateral cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 23, 80–89 (2002).
van Hoesel, R. J. M. & Tyler, R. S. Speech perception, localization, and lateralization with bilateral cochlear implants. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 113, 1617–1630 (2003).
Litovsky, R. Y., Parkinson, A. & Arcaroli, J. Spatial hearing and speech intelligibility in bilateral cochlear implant users. Ear Hear. 30, 419–431 (2009).
Mok, M., Galvin, K. L., Dowell, R. C. & McKay, C. M. Spatial unmasking and binaural advantage for children with normal hearing, a cochlear implant and a hearing aid, and bilateral implants. Audiol. Neurootol. 12, 295–306 (2007).
Smulders, Y. E. et al. Comparison of bilateral and unilateral cochlear implantation in adults: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 142, 249–256 (2016).
Allen, K., Alais, D. & Carlile, S. Speech intelligibility reduces over distance from an attended location: evidence for an auditory spatial gradient of attention. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 71, 164–173 (2009).
Teder-Salejarvi, W. A. & Hillyard, S. A. The gradient of spatial auditory attention in free field: an event-related potential study. Percept. Psychophys. 60, 1228–1242 (1998).
Rhodes, G. Auditory attention and the representation of spatial information. Percept. Psychophys. 42, 1–14 (1987).
Dorman, M. F. & Gifford, R. H. Combining acoustic and electric stimulation in the service of speech recognition. Int. J. Audiol. 49, 912–919 (2010).
Gifford, R. H. et al. Combined electric and acoustic stimulation with hearing preservation: effect of cochlear implant low-frequency cutoff on speech understanding and perceived listening difficulty. Ear Hear. 38, 539–553 (2017).
Gifford, R. H. et al. Cochlear implantation with hearing preservation yields significant benefit for speech recognition in complex listening environments. Ear Hear. 34, 413–425 (2013).
Verschuur, C., Hellier, W. & Teo, C. An evaluation of hearing preservation outcomes in routine cochlear implant care: Implications for candidacy. Cochlear Implants Int. 17(Suppl 1), 62–65 (2016).
Byrne, D. et al. An international comparison of long-term average speech spectra. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 2108–2120 (1994).
Feddersen, W. E., Sandel, T. T., Teas, D. C. & Jeffress, L. A. Localization of high-frequency tone. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 988–991 (1957).
Brosch, M., Selezneva, E. & Scheich, H. Neuronal activity in primate auditory cortex during the performance of audiovisual tasks. Eur. J. Neurosci. 41, 603–614 (2015).
Rahne, T., Bockmann, M., von Specht, H. & Sussman, E. S. Visual cues can modulate integration and segregation of objects in auditory scene analysis. Brain Res. 1144, 127–135 (2007).
Atilgan, H. et al. Integration of visual information in auditory cortex promotes auditory scene analysis through multisensory binding. Neuron 97, 640–655 (2018).
Bertelson, P. & Radeau, M. Cross-modal bias and perceptual fusion with auditory-visual spatial discordance. Percept. Psychophys. 29, 578–584 (1981).
Bermant, R. I. & Welch, R. B. Effect of degree of separation of visual-auditory stimulus and eye position upon spatial interaction of vision and audition. Percept. Mot. Skills 42, 487–493 (1976).
Peelle, J. E. & Sommers, M. S. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception. Cortex 68, 169–181 (2015).
Sumby, W. H. & Pollack, I. Visual contribution to speech intelligibility in noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26, 212–215 (1954).
Crosse, M. J., Butler, J. S. & Lalor, E. C. Congruent visual speech enhances cortical entrainment to continuous auditory speech in noise-free conditions. J. Neurosci. 35, 14195–14204 (2015).
Crosse, M. J., Di Liberto, G. M. & Lalor, E. C. Eye can hear clearly now: Inverse effectiveness in natural audiovisual speech processing relies on long-term crossmodal temporal integration. J. Neuro. 36, 9888–9895 (2016).
Luo, H., Liu, Z. X. & Poeppel, D. Auditory cortex tracks both auditory and visual stimulus dynamics using low-frequency neuronal phase modulation. PLoS Biol. 8, 1000445 (2010).
Park, H., Kayser, C., Thut, G. & Gross, J. Lip movements entrain the observers’ low-frequency brain oscillations to facilitate speech intelligibility. Elife 5, 14521 (2016).
Kishon-Rabin, L., Boothroyd, A. & Hanin, L. Speechreading enhancement: a comparison of spatial-tactile display of voice fundamental frequency (F-0) with auditory F-0. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 593–602 (1996).
Skinner, M. W. et al. Comparison of benefit from vibrotactile aid and cochlear implant for postlinguistically deaf adults. Laryngoscope 98, 1092–1099 (1988).
Oxenham, A. J. & Kreft, H. A. Speech perception in tones and noise via cochlear implants reveals influence of spectral resolution on temporal processing. Trends Hear. 18, 233 (2014).
Dawson, P. W., Mauger, S. J. & Hersbach, A. A. Clinical evaluation of signal-to-noise ratio-based noise reduction in nucleus (R) cochlear implant recipients. Ear Hear. 32, 382–390 (2011).
Goehring, T. et al. Speech enhancement based on neural networks improves speech intelligibility in noise for cochlear implant users. Hear. Res. 344, 183–194 (2017).
ISO-13091-1:2001. Mechanical Vibration-Vibrotactile Perception Thresholds for the Assessment of Nerve Dysfunction-Part 1: Methods of Measurement at the Fingertips. International Organisation for Standardization (2001).
Keidser, G. et al. The National Acoustic Laboratories (NAL) CDs of speech and noise for hearing aid evaluation: normative data and potential applications. Austra. N. Zeal. J. Audiol. 1, 16–35 (2002).
Denk, F., Ernst, S. M. A., Ewert, S. D. & Kollmeier, B. Adapting hearing devices to the individual ear acoustics: database and target response correction functions for various device styles. Trends Hear. 22, 1–10 (2018).
Glasberg, B. R. & Moore, B. C. Derivation of auditory filter shapes from notched-noise data. Hear. Res. 47, 103–138 (1990).