AbstractThis manuscript aims to utilize industrial wastes, i.e., ferrochrome slag (FS), ground granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash to prepare alkali activated cementless controlled low strength material (CLSM). The physical properties, i.e., flowability, bleeding, unit weight, and mechanical properties such as strength, durability, and settlement were assessed for different CLSM mix designs and compared with cement-based FS-CLSM. The alkali activated FS-based CLSM achieved adequate flowability and unit weight with a strength value of 1.72 to 10.44 MPa for different CLSM mix propotions, with a California bearing ratio (CBR) value of 328% to make the CLSM mix a feasible pavement material. The study concludes that a high molar ratio of potassium hydroxide (KOH) accelerates the alkali activation process which helps in the formation of alkaline alumino/calcium silicate hydrates to bind the FS and produce CLSM with adequate strength. The high durability and low levels of toxic metals in the leachate cause the FS-based CLSM environment to be acceptable. Furthermore, life cycle analysis was carried out to investigate the effects of the FS-based CLSM on the ecosystem and human health.Practical ApplicationsThe present study aims to utilize a less explored industrial waste from the ferroalloys industry, ferrochrome slag (FS), in preparing controlled low strength material (CLSM) without the addition of cement. The CLSM is prepared by mixing FS with other industrial waste to achieve adequate properties and can be utilized as an unpaved road material or in structural filling. The study concludes that production of CLSM by using FS is economical and safe relative to the environment and human health. Since the developed construction material is prepared by using industrial wastes and without cement, it is an alternative solution to reutilize the industrial waste more efficiently particularly inside and in the vicinity of the industry. Based on the above results, a pilot study is in process to develop and repair the construction works of roads and trench filling in the plant premises and outside in the vicinity of the plant.

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