Seidl, R., Schelhaas, M.-J., Rammer, W. & Verkerk, P. J. Increasing forest disturbances in Europe and their impact on carbon storage. Nat. Clim. Chang. 4, 806–810 (2014).
Kurz, W. et al. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature 452, 987–990 (2008).
Turner, M. G. Disturbance and landscape dynamics in a changing world. Ecology 91, 2833–2849 (2010).
Müller, J. et al. Increasing disturbance demands new policies to conserve intact forest. Conserv. Lett. 12, e12449 (2019).
Lindenmayer, D., Burton, P. J. & Franklin, J. F. Salvage Logging and its Ecological Consequences. (Island Press, 2008).
Leverkus, A. B. et al. Salvage logging effects on regulating ecosystem services and fuel loads. Front. Ecol. Environ. 18, 391–400 (2020).
Thorn, S. et al. Impacts of salvage logging on biodiversity-a meta-analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 55, 279–289 (2018).
Cobb, T. P. et al. Effects of postfire salvage logging on deadwood-associated beetles. Conserv. Biol. 25, 94–104 (2011).
Leverkus, A. B., Lindenmayer, D. B., Thorn, S. & Gustafsson, L. Salvage logging in the world’s forests: Interactions between natural disturbance and logging need recognition. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 27, 1140–1154 (2018).
Morissette, J. L., Cobb, T. P., Brigham, R. M. & James, P. C. The response of boreal forest songbird communities to fire and post-fire harvesting. Can. J. Res. Can. Rech. 32, 2169–2183 (2002).
Georgiev, K. B. et al. Salvage logging changes the taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional successional trajectories of forest bird communities. J. Appl. Ecol. 1365-2664, 13599 (2020).
Lindenmayer, D. B., Mcburney, L., Blair, D., Wood, J. & Banks, S. C. From unburnt to salvage logged: quantifying bird responses to different levels of disturbance severity. J. Appl. Ecol. 55, 1626–1636 (2018).
Blair, D. P., McBurney, L. M., Blanchard, W., Banks, S. C. & Lindenmayer, D. B. Disturbance gradient shows logging affects plant functional groups more than fire. Ecol. Appl. 26, 2280–2301 (2016).
Noss, R. F. & Lindenmayer, D. B. The ecological effects of salvage logging after natural disturbance. Conserv. Biol. 20, 946–948 (2006).
Hutto, R. L. Toward meaningful snag-management guidelines for postfire salvage logging in North American conifer forests. Conserv. Biol. 20, 984–993 (2006).
Hutto, R. L. The ecological importance of severe wildfires: some like it hot. Ecol. Appl. 18, 1827–1834 (2008).
Thorn, S., Müller, J. & Leverkus, A. B. Preventing European forest diebacks. Science 365, 1388.2–1388 (2019).
Stokstad, E. Salvage logging research continues to generate sparks. Science 311, 761 (2006).
Franklin, J. F. et al. Threads of continuity: ecosystem disturbances, biological legacies and ecosystem recovery. Conserv. Biol. Pract. 1, 8–16 (2000).
Lindenmayer, D., Thorn, S. & Banks, S. Please do not disturb ecosystems further. Nat. Ecol. Evol. 1, 0031 (2017).
Burivalova, Z., Şekercioğlu, Ç. H. & Koh, L. P. Thresholds of logging intensity to maintain tropical forest biodiversity. Curr. Biol. 24, 1893–1898 (2014).
França, F. M., Frazão, F. S., Korasaki, V., Louzada, J. & Barlow, J. Identifying thresholds of logging intensity on dung beetle communities to improve the sustainable management of Amazonian tropical forests. Biol. Conserv. 216, 115–122 (2017).
Gustafsson, L. et al. Retention forestry to maintain multifunctional forests: a world perspective. Bioscience 62, 633–645 (2012).
Schmiegelow, F. K. A., Stepnisky, D. P., Stambaugh, C. A. & Koivula, M. Reconciling salvage logging of boreal forests with a natural-disturbance management model. Conserv. Biol. 20, 971–983 (2006).
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, F. Forest Damages Prevention Act (1087/2013). (2013).
De Grandpré, L. et al. Incorporating insect and wind disturbances in a natural disturbance-based management framework for the boreal forest. Forests 9, 1–20 (2018).
Chao, A., Colwell, R. K., Gotelli, N. J. & Thorn, S. Proportional mixture of two rarefaction/extrapolation curves to forecast biodiversity changes under landscape transformation. Ecol. Lett. 22, 1913–1922 (2019).
Anderson, M. J. et al. Navigating the multiple meanings of β diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist. Ecol. Lett. 14, 19–28 (2011).
Dornelas, M. et al. Assemblage time series reveal biodiversity change but not systematic loss. Science 344, 296–299 (2014).
Thorn, S. et al. Rare species, functional groups, and evolutionary lineages drive successional trajectories in disturbed forests. Ecology 0, 1–8 (2020).
Hyvärinen, E., Kouki, J. & Martikainen, P. Fire and green-tree retention in conservation of red-listed and rare deadwood-dependent beetles in Finnish boreal forests. Conserv. Biol. 20, 1711–1719 (2006).
Fedrowitz, K. et al. Can retention forestry help conserve biodiversity? A meta-analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 51, 1669–1679 (2014).
Entling, W., Schmidt, M. H., Bacher, S., Brandl, R. & Nentwig, W. Niche properties of Central European spiders: Shading, moisture and the evolution of the habitat niche. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 16, 440–448 (2007).
Swanson, M. E. et al. The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9, 117–125 (2011).
Lindenmayer, D. B. & Ough, K. Salvage logging in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and its potential impacts on biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 20, 1005–1015 (2006).
Banks-Leite, C. et al. Assessing the utility of statistical adjustments for imperfect detection in tropical conservation science. J. Appl. Ecol. 51, 849–859 (2014).
Kortmann, M. et al. Beauty and the beast: how a bat utilizes forests shaped by outbreaks of an insect pest. Anim. Conserv. 21, 21–30 (2018).
Mikoláš, M. et al. Mixed-severity natural disturbances promote the occurrence of an endangered umbrella species in primary forests. Ecol. Manag. 405, 210–218 (2017).
Leverkus, A. B., Gustafsson, L., Rey Benayas, J. M. & Castro, J. Does post-disturbance salvage logging affect the provision of ecosystem services? A systematic review protocol. Environ. Evid. 4, 16 (2015).
Hutto, R. L. & Young, J. Regional landbird monitoring: perspectives from the Northern Rocky Mountains. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 30, 738–750 (2002).
Zmihorski, M. The effect of windthrow and its management on breeding bird communities in a managed forest. Biodivers. Conserv. 19, 1871–1882 (2010).
Thorn, S. et al. Changes in the dominant assembly mechanism drive species loss caused by declining resources. Ecol. Lett. 19, 163–170 (2016).
Leverkus, A. B. et al. Salvage logging effects on regulating and supporting ecosystem services–a systematic map. Can. J. Res. 18, 1–18 (2018).
Mehr, M., Brandl, R., Kneib, T. & Müller, J. The effect of bark beetle infestation and salvage logging on bat activity in a national park. Biodivers. Conserv. 21, 2775–2786 (2012).
Fontaine, J. B., Donato, D. C., Robinson, W. D., Law, B. E. & Kauffman, J. B. Bird communities following high-severity fire: response to single and repeat fires in a mixed-evergreen forest, Oregon, USA. Ecol. Manag. 257, 1496–1504 (2009).
Cahall, R. E. & Hayes, J. P. Influences of postfire salvage logging on forest birds in the Eastern Cascades, Oregon, USA. Ecol. Manag. 257, 1119–1128 (2009).
Castro, J., Moreno-Rueda, G. & Hódar, J. Experimental test of postfire management in pine forests: impact of salvage logging versus partial cutting and nonintervention on bird-species assemblages. Conserv. Biol. 24, 810–819 (2010).
Rost, J., Clavero, M., Brotons, L. & Pons, P. The effect of postfire salvage logging on bird communities in Mediterranean pine forests: the benefits for declining species. J. Appl. Ecol. 49, 644–651 (2012).
Zmihorski, M. et al. Early post-fire bird community in European boreal forest: comparing salvage-logged with non-intervention areas. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 18, e00636 (2019).
Choi, C. Y., Lee, E. J., Nam, H. Y. & Lee, W. S. Effects of postfire logging on bird populations and communities in burned forests. J. Korean . Soc. 96, 115–123 (2007).
Lee, E.-J., Lee, W.-S., Son, S. H. & Rhim, S.-J. Differences in bird communities in postfire silvicultural practices stands within pine forest of South Korea. Landsc. Ecol. Eng. 7, 137–143 (2011).
Koivula, M. & Spence, J. R. Effects of post-fire salvage logging on boreal mixed-wood ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Carabidae). Ecol. Manag. 236, 102–112 (2006).
Wermelinger, B. et al. Impact of windthrow and salvage-logging on taxonomic and functional diversity of forest arthropods. Ecol. Manag. 391, 9–18 (2017).
Hernández-Hernández, R., Castro, J., Del Arco Aguilar, M., Fernández-López, Á. B. & González-Mancebo, J. M. Post-fire salvage logging imposes a new disturbance that retards succession: the case of bryophyte communities in a Macaronesian laurel forest. Forests 8, 1–16 (2017).
Thorn, S. et al. Guild-specific responses of forest Lepidoptera highlight conservation-oriented forest management – implications from conifer-dominated forests. Ecol. Manag. 337, 41–47 (2015).
Durska, E. Effects of disturbances on scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) in Pine Forests. Biodivers. Conserv. 22, 1991–2021 (2013).
Donato, D. C., Fontaine, J. B., Kauffman, J. B., Robinson, D. & Law, B. E. Fuel mass and forest structure following stand-replacement fire and post-fire logging in a mixed-evergreen forest. Int. J. Wildl. Fire 22, 652–666 (2013).
Kurulok, S. E. & Macdonald, S. E. Impacts of postfire salvage logging on understory plant communities of the boreal mixedwood forest 2 and 34 years after disturbance. Can. J. Res. 37, 2637–2651 (2007).
Macdonald, S. E. Effects of partial post-fire salvage harvesting on vegetation communities in the boreal mixedwood forest region of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Ecol. Manag. 239, 21–31 (2007).
Fornwalt, P. J. et al. Short-term understory plant community responses to salvage logging in beetle-affected lodgepole pine forests. Ecol. Manag. 409, 84–93 (2018).
Waldron, K., Ruel, J.-C., Gauthier, S., De Grandpré, L. & Peterson, C. J. Effects of post-windthrow salvage logging on microsites, plant composition and regeneration. Appl. Veg. Sci. 17, 323–337 (2014).
Leverkus, A. B., Lorite, J., Navarro, F. B., Sánchez-Cañete, E. P. & Castro, J. Post-fire salvage logging alters species composition and reduces cover, richness, and diversity in Mediterranean plant communities. J. Environ. Manag. 133, 323–331 (2014).
Chao, A. et al. Rarefaction and extrapolation with Hill numbers: a framework for sampling and estimation in species diversity studies. Ecol. Monogr. 84, 45–67 (2014).
Colwell, R. K. et al. Models and estimators linking individual-based and sample-based rarefaction, extrapolation and comparison of assemblages. J. Plant Ecol. 5, 3–21 (2012).
Wood, S. N., Pya, N. & Säfken, B. Smoothing parameter and model selection for general smooth models. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 111, 1548–1563 (2016).
Dornelas, M. et al. BioTIME: a database of biodiversity time series for the Anthropocene. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 27, 760–786 (2018).
Olson, D. M. et al. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on earth. Bioscience 51, 933 (2001).