AbstractThis study evaluates different proposed merging solutions that reduce the conflict between merging vehicles and mainline traffic within a mixed traffic environment using a safety measure to see which strategy might work better than others under specific traffic conditions. The mixed traffic includes various percentages of driver-operated vehicles (DVs) and connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs). The probability of noncompliance (PNC) is selected as a surrogate safety measure to assess the strategies. A MATLAB program is developed to simulate various traffic conditions at a merging area and to calculate the PNC merging for the different merging strategies. In addition, to examine the relationship between PNC and collision frequency at the merging area, the collision data at 15 merging ramps in Ottawa were collected to examine the relationship between PNC values obtained from the simulation for the case of a full-DV vehicle fleet and no management strategy (current conditions) and actual safety performance. The results confirmed the validity of PNC as a surrogate safety measure that is correlated to expected collision frequency at merge areas. By simulating all proposed merging management strategies, the results of this study showed a general trend of decreasing PNC and, hence, improved safety performance since the CAV penetration rate increases even when no management strategy is used or under the do-nothing option. However, most merging strategies had better expected safety performance than the do-nothing option, which indicates the value of implementing a merging management strategy, especially during the period of transition from a full-DV to a full-CAV fleet.