AbstractTo explore the seismic response, influence mechanism, and failure of long-span spatial structures with three-dimensional seismic excitations in a strong earthquake, 1/6-scale shaking-table tests of single-layer cylindrical reticulated shell structures with fixed hinged bearings, horizontal isolation bearings, and three-dimensional isolation bearings were conducted with three-dimensional seismic excitations. The accuracy of the numerical simulation method was verified by a numerical reconstruction analysis of the experiments. Dynamic time-history response analysis and incremental dynamic analysis of a full-scale single-layer cylindrical reticulated shell were conducted. The seismic response and failure states of the three-dimensional isolation structure were compared at different positions, different rise-span ratios, and different lower supporting structure heights. Studies have shown that horizontal isolation bearings cannot reduce the vertical vibration frequency and vertical seismic response of a structure; three-dimensional isolation bearings can effectively reduce the vertical vibration frequency and the vertical seismic response of the structure. The degree of plastic development is reduced by 82% in strong earthquakes; the initial plastic development position of the structure changes from the midspan to the four edges, and the ultimate bearing capacity of the structure increases by 40%. For a three-dimensional isolation structure, the natural frequency of the base-isolation structure is smaller, the ultimate bearing capacity is greater, and the isolation effect is better than with story isolation. With an increase in the rise-span ratio, the ultimate bearing capacity of the structure decreases. When the rise-span ratio is 1/2, the bearing capacity is 0.9g, and the structure tends toward dynamic instability. A greater height for the lower support produces a greater ultimate bearing capacity and better isolation.