AbstractIn order to explore the flexural performance of high-strength steel (HSS)/ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) composite beams, a total of six HSS-UHPC composite beams with varying levels of interfacial shear connectivity, arrangements of perfobond strip connectors (PBL), and variable thicknesses of concrete decks were fabricated and tested. The failure mode, flexural stiffness, load-deflection curve, strain history, and interfacial slippages obtained from the composite beams are presented and discussed. Experimental results indicated that despite the lightweight feature of such a hybrid system, the HSS-UHPC composite beams exhibited high flexural stiffness and favorable ductility. As the level of shear connectivity decreases, the bending resistance of HSS-UHPC composite beams decreases, while the beams’ ductility exhibits slight enhancement. The PBL arrangement has crucial effects on the behavior of HSS-UHPC composite beams, and the beams’ ductility was improved by approximately 48.9% by alternating uniformly distributed PBLs to a nonuniform distribution pattern. Experimental results also highlighted the influence of the UHPC deck thickness on the flexural performance of the composite beams. As compared to an 80.0 mm-thick UHPC deck, the 100.0 mm-thick UHPC deck witnessed increases in bending stiffness, yield moment, and ultimate resistance of the composite beam by 19.8%, 22.8%, and 14.6%, respectively. Comparisons between the results obtained from the tests and analytical procedures for predicting HSS-UHPC composite beams resistances were performed to assess the feasibility of existing design approaches. Results of the study confirmed that equations recommended by GB 50017-2017 have favorable accuracy in calculating the bending resistance of HSS-UHPC composite beams with uniformly distributed PBLs, while for HSS-UHPC composite beams with nonuniformly distributed PBLs, both the AASHTO LRFD and Ban et al. equations are recommended.