AbstractReworks are unavoidable during the design and construction phases of construction projects and significantly increase the time and cost required to complete projects. Several studies have been conducted to determine how to mitigate the major consequences of reworks by identifying the critical root causes of the design changes and/or modifications. Multiple researchers and practitioners have concluded that reworks are due to human-, organizational-, and /or project-based changes; however, the existing literature lacks in-depth information pertaining to these rework indicators. The authors of the present study aimed to investigate, identify, and prioritize the organizational-based rework indicators (ORIs), project-based rework indicators (PRIs), and human-based rework indicators (HRIs). A thorough list of strategies to prevent or mitigate the major consequences of PRIs, ORIs, and HRIs was also developed. A comprehensive literature review was conducted, and 212 relevant articles were carefully selected to be reviewed in detail. The rework indicators in each category were ranked based on how often they were mentioned in the literature and then were weighted using the rank sum method. The PRIs, ORIs, and HRIs were classified and weighted by their attributes, then were compared with one another. The results revealed that poor design, lack of communication, and inexperienced workers were the first-ranked rework indicators in the project, organization, and human categories, respectively. It was also concluded that the attributes of leadership and management, error and inefficiency, and skill and experience received the highest weights among the attributes belonging to the organization, project, and human categories, respectively. The findings of this study will help decision makers timely identify the main causes of construction reworks and enable them to allocate resources for preventing and/or mitigating their cost and frequency of occurrence.

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