AbstractWhile construction projects continue to grow rapidly every year, the industry still faces challenges in the form of underperformance as the result of inefficient project management. This is reflected in low productivity and cost and time overruns for construction projects. Better planning and scheduling are important in order to increase the success of construction projects. This study aimed to investigate factors influencing scheduling activities of construction projects in Indonesia. A systematic literature review was performed, leading to the identification of twenty factors influencing scheduling activities at the planning stage and twelve factors influencing scheduling activities at the implementation stage. Questionnaire surveys were distributed to obtain the primary data in this study. Following data collection, factor analysis was conducted to discover comprehensive underlying concepts influencing scheduling activities. Six groups of factors influencing scheduling activities at the planning stage and three groups influencing scheduling activities at the implementation stage were identified. These findings were synthesized to develop a framework. Therefore, this study contributes by identifying key factors influencing scheduling activities in both planning and implementation stages through factor analysis within a context-specific environment and presenting the scheduling-dispute framework as a practical tool for managing delay-related disputes that may arise due to these factors. Construction professionals can take advantage of this study to implement better scheduling practices and minimize construction disputes; such improvements ultimately lead to project success.Practical ApplicationsConstruction contracts typically include provisions for contractors to create construction programs based on their scheduling activities. However, contracts are usually silent with regard to scheduling fundamentals and the form of programs. The time aspect is one of the main aspects that must be met in the execution of a construction contract. Failure to complete work on time may result in the contractor being obliged to pay damages. Although many studies have been conducted concerning scheduling and delay-related disputes, the industry still suffers from challenges related to proper scheduling and delays. A context-based study is needed that focuses on the factors influencing scheduling activities in order to improve scheduling performance. This study is unique in that it presents these factors in two scheduling stages, planning and implementation. Based on the identification of primary influencing factors, a scheduling-dispute framework that describes the relationship between these various factors and delay-related disputes that occur was developed in this study. Contractors can take advantage of this framework and align their best practices with it to enhance their readiness in an effort to prevent delays through proper scheduling.

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