AbstractWater systems contain fine sediment as a natural phenomenon. The main cause of ecological deterioration is undesirable fine sediment. Fine sediment comprises inorganic particles of sand, silt, and clay that are less than 2 mm in diameter. Fine sediment is considered to be pollutant in water bodies (rivers, streams, lakes, and reservoirs). Sediment has various channel and nonchannel sources. Fine sediment can alter the hydraulics of rivers and their morphology. It has detrimental effects on reservoir storage and function, can degrade the food chain, and affects the reproduction of aquatic animals, which ultimately affects river ecosystems. The deposition of fine sediment renders waterways difficult to navigate and hinders recreational uses. It degrades the water quality for drinking purposes, wildlife, and affects the land surrounding the bodies of water. The intrusion of fine sediment is a global problem, and with time, researchers will understand the effects on biological and physical processes. Comprehension may help scientists minimize the effects of fine sediment on river ecosystems by considering various disciplines such as ecology, hydraulics, fluvial geomorphology, and hydrochemistry. Many researchers have investigated fine sediment in rivers. This paper reviews the literature, focusing on the consequences of intrusion on the river ecosystem, river health, and associated hydraulic parameters.Practical ApplicationThe study of FSI is a major application in applied environmental science. It is applied to gain as complete an understanding of the physical and biological processes as possible. It has been applied to estimate the trap efficiency and to determine the live storage capacity of reservoirs. Excess fine sediment is a primary reason for the failure of water bodies, so it is important to control it and maintain necessary fluid properties such as viscosity, specific weight, and the optical properties of water. Proper control of fine sediment in bodies of water maintains both the survival and growth of plants, and the food chain of aquatic animals. It is important to control excess fine sediment to avoid turbidity in water. In brief, the topic has applications in various fields such as evaluating river health, live reservoir capacity, growth of flora and fauna, and water quality standards.

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