AbstractThis paper discusses the flexural response of thin marble panels strengthened with carbon and glass fiber–reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates when subjected to out-of-plane loading. Two types of panels were investigated, including 20 mm-thick single panels used for facades exposed to load from one direction, thus reinforced from the tension side, and 40 mm-thick composite panels used for balcony decking consisting of two 20 mm-thick single panels sandwiching the FRP laminate. The composite panels resist incident blast pressures from above and underneath and protect the laminate from fire damage. Load-deflection curves were developed experimentally from three-point bending tests. The results for ultimate loads and deflections for either reinforced panel type were in the range of 9 kN and 12 mm compared with typical values of 1.37 kN and 1 mm or 5 kN and 0.6 mm for 20 mm- or 40 mm-thick unreinforced marble panels, respectively. Analytical models for the load-deflection curves were obtained from moment-curvature diagrams using equilibrium and strain compatibility based on a compressive stress–strain model of marble that best fits the experimental data. The analytical model incorporated the effect of crack width opening and crack depth of the marble. The benefits of the reinforcement were to preserve durability, bowing, warping, and structural integrity of the stone panels. In addition, ductility will be improved, thus preventing brittle failures that cause personal injury due to fragmentation when subjected to blast pressures or thermal stresses.

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