AbstractThis paper examines the seismic performance of a bridge–helical pile foundation based on the seismic fragility analysis, considering the element fragility of a coupled bridge–soil–foundation system. Nonlinear time history analyses were conducted using a finite-element modeling scheme that was validated using the results of large-scale shaking table tests of soil–piles–structure systems involving both liquefiable and nonliquefiable soils. Incremental dynamic analysis was conducted to generate the fragility curves for a two-span bridge supported on helical piles in nonliquefiable and liquefiable sites considering a suite of ground motions. The damage limit states were defined to describe the capacity of the bridge components. In total, 440 nonlinear time-history analyses were performed to evaluate the seismic demand of the helical piles and the bridge-reinforced concrete pier components, and the results were used to establish their fragility curves. The results revealed that the helical piles were the most fragile component in the nonliquefiable and liquefiable tests. The liquefiable soil could decrease the seismic demand on the column lateral deformation and increase the demand dispersion. On the other hand, the reinforced concrete pier exhibited a large drift response in the nonliquefiable soil, causing it to be more vulnerable to seismic hazards than in the case of liquefiable soil.