AbstractNonstructural components typically are not designed for seismic loads, yet their behavior can affect the postearthquake building functionality significantly. Nonstructural damage occurs at low to moderate seismic intensities, heavily contributing to downtime and overall financial loss. Moreover, the failure of these elements can represent a potential life-safety threat for occupants and pedestrians. Due to increased awareness of these issues, in recent decades substantial research efforts have been dedicated to the study of nonstructural seismic behavior. Focusing on architectural elements (facades, partitions, and ceilings), this paper provides a state-of-the-art review of fragility functions. Seismic damage states were described and literature data were collected to build fragility domains for different nonstructural archetypes. Furthermore, references to innovative low-damage technologies are provided, and traditional (i.e., construction practice) systems were compared with low-damage components in terms of fragility. A fragility-based direct design approach is suggested based on the state-of-the-art review: nonstructural details could be designed, manufactured, or selected specifically to target desired tailored fragility curves representing targeted (multi)performance levels.

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