AbstractA bridge influence line (BIL) and a bridge influence surface (BIS) reflect the relationship between the bridge responses and the loads on the bridge and have been commonly used in techniques such as bridge damage detection, bridge safety evaluation, bridge model correction, bridge weigh-in-motion, and so on. Conventionally, a BIL can be extracted from the bridge response under a moving vehicle with known axle loads, while a BIS can then be obtained by lateral interpolation from BILs obtained for key transverse positions. However, in the traditional BIL-extracting methods, the transverse distance between the coaxial wheels was not considered; that is, the coaxial left and right wheel loads are simply treated as one concentrated load (usually referred to as the axle load). Therefore, the obtained BIL is the bridge response under two loads rather than one. Hence, errors may be introduced to the obtained BILs and propagated to the interpolated BIS. Moreover, the potentially significant effect of the unbalance of coaxial wheel loads on BIL identification is ignored. In this research, a new method for determining a genuine BIL and BIS is proposed. The wheel load rather than the axle load was taken into calculation in this method, where the effect of the transverse distance between the coaxial wheels and the unbalance of the coaxial wheel loads was naturally taken into consideration. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Furthermore, a comprehensive parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of some important parameters such as vehicle velocity, lateral deviation of the center of gravity of vehicles, axle count, and road surface condition on the identification performance. The results show that the BIL and BIS can be identified with satisfactory accuracy.Practical ApplicationsBoth the bridge influence line (BIL) and the bridge influence surface (BIS) have been commonly used in techniques such as bridge damage detection, bridge safety evaluation, bridge model correction, and bridge weigh-in-motion because they reflect the relationship between the bridge responses and the loads on the bridge. However, in the traditional vehicle-based BIL/BIS calibration methods, the track width of the calibration vehicle was ignored, leading to the accuracies of the calibrated influence lines/surfaces being affected by the track width and the transverse unbalance of the calibration vehicle. To address this problem, a new method, which can eliminate the negative effects of the track width and transverse unbalance, is proposed in this study. It provides a more accurate solution for bridge influence lines/surfaces than the traditional methods. The obtained bridge influence line/surface offers a more accurate input for related technologies and applications such as the bridge weigh-in-motion techniques and therefore improves the accuracy of these related technologies.