Global P losses from soils and soil P balances

All continents result in negative P balances (e.g., net P losses from agricultural systems, Table 1; Fig. 2) except Asia, Oceania and Australia, with Asia having a slightly positive but near zero P balance. This is in spite of high to very high chemical fertilizer inputs (with a range of 1.7 to 13 kg ha−1 yr−1 between the different continents, with national values reaching up to 14 and 19 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the European Union 15 old Member States (EU15, member states joining before 2004 mainly in western and northern Europe) and China, respectively). Most negative P balances are indicated for Africa due to very low chemical fertilizer input of 1.7 kg ha−1 yr−1 paired with high losses due to soil erosion of 9.6 kg ha−1 yr−1. South America as well as Central and Eastern Europe (NEU11; which are the new member states joining the EU after 2004 with the exception of Cyprus and Malta) also exhibit high P losses but for different reasons. South America has a very high chemical fertilizer input but also high losses due to soil erosion paired with high P exports due to organic P management (calculated as the sum of manure and residue input minus plant uptake). In contrast, the eastern European Union New Member States (NEU11) have rather low erosional losses but also very low chemical fertilizer input. With the hypothetical assumption of no replenishment due to chemical fertilizer (e.g., due to economic or technical constraints), calculation of soil P balances results in negative balances globally, as well as for all the continents and regions considered (depletion between 4 and 20 kg P ha−1 yr−1; Figs. 3 and 4; Table 1). The latter demonstrates the vulnerability of today’s global land management system and its strong dependency on chemical P fertilizers from non-renewable mineable P deposits.

Table 1 Main phosphorus (P) statistics in kg P ha−1yr−1 for all continents and selected countries.
Fig. 2: Global average phosphorus (P) losses due to soil erosion in kg ha−1 yr−1.

The chromatic scale represents the P losses estimates, while the gray color indicates the cropland areas that were excluded from the modeling due to data unavailability. Note that classes are not regularly scale ranked but are divided into six classes using the quantile classification method. Only plant available fractions were considered. For the more residual P fractions please refer to Table 1 or Figs. 3 and 4).

Fig. 3: Global P soil pools and depletion due to erosion.

Arrows indicate fluxes (positive: net input to soils, negative: depletion of soils). *Organic P management = sum of manure and residue input minus plant uptake. Non-plant P = non-plant available P. Inorganic and organic P give plant available fractions. Total soil P: sum of P fractions lost from soil via erosion with relative errors. No/with chemical = P balance with and without chemical fertilizer.

Fig. 4: Soil P pools and depletion due to erosion in Africa, Europe and North America.

AD = Atmospheric Deposition. CF = Chemical Fertilizer. OM = Organic P management = sum of manure and residue input minus plant uptake. Arrows indicate fluxes (positive: net input to soils, negative: depletion of soils). Non-plant P = non-plant available P. Inorganic and organic P give plant available fractions. Soil Plost: sum of P fractions lost from soil via erosion with relative errors. No/with chemical = P balance with and without chemical fertilizer.

Our area related calculations result in an average P loss for arable soils, due to erosion by water, of approximately (5.9_{ – 0.79% }^{ + 1.17% }) kg ha−1 yr−1 globally (Fig. 3, Table 1). This is around 60% of the rates given by Smil16 who estimated 10 kg P ha−1 yr−1 from arable fields due to soil erosion by water. Our total P losses due to soil erosion by water from arable soils globally result in 6.3 Tg yr−1 with 1.5 Tg yr−1 for organic and 4.8 Tg yr−1 for inorganic P. With these values the results are at the lower end of the range discussed in the literature (between 1–19 Tg yr−1, Table 2).

Table 2 Global fluxes from soils/arable systems to waters as discussed in recent literature. For comparability, all values were normalized to 1 billion ha of arable land (with original values given in brackets).

Liu34 in estimating net input to, and output from, cropland systems indicated a net loss of P from the world’s croplands of about 12.8 Tg  yr−1 (calculating input from atmosphere, weathering and chemical fertilizer versus output from organic P management, soil erosion and runoff), which would be, according to their calculations, the same order of magnitude as synthetic fertilizer input (13.8 Tg yr−1 for statistical year 2003/2004). Our calculations result in an approximate net soil loss due to erosion of 6.3 Tg yr−1 with a global average chemical fertilizer input of 9.2 Tg yr−1. The fluxes clearly show the critical dependence on chemical fertilizer globally, with a hypothetical net-average-area related depletion of 10.7 kg ha−1 yr−1 globally without the compensation due to chemical fertilizer, from which a loss of 5.2 kg ha−1 yr−1 stems from organic P management (sum of manure and residue input minus plant uptake) and 5.9 kg ha−1 yr−1 from soil erosion (Table 1). Continental and national erosional P losses are between 40 and 85% of total P losses from agricultural systems with the exception of Europe and Australia (16 and 19%, respectively). Globally, as well as for Africa, South America and Asia, P soil losses due to erosion are higher than losses due to organic P management.

A recent quantification of atmospheric P dust input, based on dust measurements in the Sierra Nevada, concluded that measured dust fluxes are greater than, or equal to, modern erosional outputs and a large fractional contribution relative to bedrock35. However, even though their measured and modeled maximum atmospheric P fluxes were in the same order of magnitude as the atmospheric flux data of Wang et al.36 used in this study (0.1 kg ha−1 yr−1 for North America), erosion rates from sediment trap measurements in their investigated forest ecosystems were considerably lower (maximum of 0.06 kg ha−1 yr−135) than might be expected in arable lands worldwide. As such, we can clearly not agree with the above conclusion.

Mitigation of the soils P status in the long term by decreasing the deficits of the current organic P management seems difficult and rather unlikely in many regions of the world (see discussion of continental balances below). As such, and considering the expected shortage of P supply from industrial fertilizers in the future, the evaluation of P fluxes clearly shows that soil erosion has to be limited to the feasible absolute minimum in the future.

Only a small fraction of the total soil P is plant available, because a large fraction is either bound in, adsorbed to, or made unavailable by occlusion in minerals (apatite and occluded P)37. Our modeling approach follows the approach of Yang et al.37 that builds on existing knowledge of soil P processes and data bases to provide spatially explicit estimates of different forms of naturally occurring soil P on the global scale. Yang et al.37 uses data acquired with the Hedley fractionation method38 which splits soil P into different fractions that are extracted sequentially with successively stronger reagents and which are merged into various inorganic and organic pools. There is great uncertainty to associate these fractions with functional plant uptake39,40 but some recent work aims at quantifying residence times of the different fractions17,41. We present the total P loss as well as the plant-available pool (Figs. 3 and 4, Table 1) as the most labile P which can participate to plant nutrition in a time scale up to months17 (i.e., the so-called labile inorganic P, inorganic P bound to secondary minerals, labile and stable organic P33,37). We contrast these more labile, short lived fractions with fractions considered very stable which would not be plant available at short time scales (i.e., inorganic P associated with minerals such as apatite or occluded P17, corresponding to 52% of total soil P in our estimates at the global scale).

Verification of soil P loss with a comparison to riverine P exports

Verification of our proposed P soil losses might be done indirectly via a comparison to riverine P loads. However, to verify our on-site P soil loss approach with off-site P river export data requires two prerequisites: (i) an estimation of the agricultural erosion and runoff contribution to total P loads in the rivers (as the latter will be the total sum of agricultural, urban and industrial runoff) and (ii) an assumption on sediment delivery rates (e.g., the percent of sediments reaching the rivers from the total eroded sediments) to estimate P loads to rivers from on-site P soil loss. Regarding the first prerequisite, we searched for published river P export data with a separation of the agricultural erosion and runoff contribution from total P loads in the rivers. Regarding the second prerequisite, there is a lack of models describing integrated sediment-delivery to rivers on a continental or global scale, but it has been discussed that sediment delivery ratios generally decrease as drainage area increases, ranging from roughly 30–100% in small catchments (≤0.1 km2) to 2–20% at large spatial scales (e.g., ≥1000 km2)42. For our comparison, we used a range of average sediment delivery rates between 11–30% as used in recent large scale studies from continental to global scale43,44. In doing so, we would like to point out, that even if 70–89% of the P lost from agricultural soils might be re-deposited within catchments, potential threats of P loss from soils are not reduced. Erosion (and thus P loss) occurs predominantly on agricultural soils while re-deposition will mostly occur in depositional hollows, wetlands, riparian zones or buffer strips. Thus, P is lost as a nutrient on food and feed production sites but re-deposited as a potential ecological threat to biodiversity and ecosystem health due to its eutrophication effect in less intensively or unmanaged ecosystems. Last but not least we would like to point out that RUSLE only considers soil displacement due to rill and inter-rill erosion neither considering tillage and gully erosion nor land sliding.

A comparison of calculated potential P export to rivers from our on-site soil P losses is well within the range of published riverine P exports (Table 3). Beusen et al.45 used total suspended sediment measurements from the GEMS-GLORI database to extrapolate spatially distributed sediment rates for the world’s largest rivers with land use, topography, lithology and precipitation as factors in a multiple linear regression approach accounting for soil erosion as well as sediment trapping. The associated nutrient exports for all continents, as well as global assessment were made by calibrating nutrient export to sediment rates with the model Global News45 using established correlations between sediment and nutrient concentrations. In comparing their P export with suspended sediments in rivers45 to our assessments, we underestimated P export globally as well as for all continents, with the exception of Africa (Table 3), which is, however, (i) strongly related to assumed sediment delivery rates and (ii) our RUSLE application only considering rill and inter-rill erosional processes with an unknown contribution of gullies, landslides and tillage erosion.

Table 3 On-site P loss from gross soil erosion (this study), calculated potential riverine loads with sediment delivery ratios between 11–30%43,44 and comparison to global and regional riverine P export studies. All values in kg P ha−1yr−1.

An analysis of 17 large scale European catchments (250–11,000 km2) quantifying the loss of P to surface waters from an off-site perspective (P flux measurement in waters) resulted in 0.05–1.5 kg ha−1 yr−1 of P loss due to soil erosion and runoff from agricultural lands into streams and rivers (excluding a Greek catchment with a very high P export of 6 kg ha−1 yr−1)46. Recalculating our on-site soil P losses with sediment delivery ratios between 11–30% results in rates for geographic Europe between 0.1–0.4 kg ha−1 yr−1 which are at the lower end of the range of Kronvang, et al.46 (Table 3). Potential P losses as riverine export due to agricultural runoff and erosion of 143 watersheds across the U.S.47 are in the same range as the calculated P loss assessment of our study, while P loads to Lake Erie assessed in a regional study48 seem slightly higher (Table 3). However, no partitioning between agricultural, urban or industrial fluxes was possible from the latter study. An assessment of the Yangtze River Basin (with 1.8 Million km2 near 20% of the whole Chinese territory) gives modeled soil P losses (on-site perspective) between 0–196 kg ha−1 yr−1 demonstrating the huge spatial heterogeneity of on-site soil erosion rates49. The model output was calibrated with total measured nutrient loads in rivers, while the partitioning differed between dissolved point and non-point as well as adsorbed non-point pollution which can be mostly attributed to soil erosion of agricultural fields. The average P loads due to soil erosion from agricultural fields in the Yangtze River Basin compares well with the range assessed in our study for China (2.7 versus a range of 1.4 to 3.7 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively). The same holds true for assessment comparisons of Africa50 and South America51 (Table 3), even though it should be considered that especially for these latter studies scale differs considerably from our approach.

Regional P losses and balances

Parallel to the distribution pattern and dynamics of global soil erosion by water32, P losses from soils due to water erosion are most dramatic in countries and regions with intensive agriculture and/or extreme climates (e.g., droughts followed by significant rain events or high frequencies of heavy rain storms) due to high erosivity effects52. As such, our calculations result in extremely high P losses due to erosion (>20 kg ha−1 yr−1) in regions such as eastern China, many regions in Indonesia, parts of east and south-eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Mozambique), Central America and parts of South America (South-Eastern Brazil; Southern Chile, Peru (Fig. 2)). A very high P loss (10 to 20 kg ha−1 yr−1) is estimated for parts of Southern Africa (South Africa, Madagascar, Tanzania) and South America (Bolivia) and a high loss (5–10 kg ha−1 yr−1) for most of India, as well as regions in Southern Africa (Angola, Zambia) and South America (Uruguay) (Fig. 2). Even though the underlying erosion model algorithm does not calculate the net catchment output but rather the on-site displacement of soil sediments which might then be re-located to other parts of the fields or even buried at depositional places, the considered on-site field management will clearly be confronted with substantial P losses due to soil erosion by water. Only considering agronomic P inputs and outputs without including P losses due to erosion by MacDonald et al.22 resulted in a very different global P pattern: most widespread large deficits were in South America (North-Eastern countries, e.g., Argentina and Paraguay), the northern United States and Eastern Europe while the largest surpluses covered most of East Asia, Western and Southern Europe, the coastal United States, South-Eastern Brazil and Uruguay.

With average soil depletion due to erosion of 9.6 kg ha−1 yr−1 in Africa, the overall P balance is already negative by 9.7 kg ha−1 yr−1 today (Table 1, Fig. 4). As the average P depletion in Africa due to negative fluxes in organic P management equals the input fluxes from the atmosphere plus chemical fertilizer, African farmers could decrease P losses to near zero with effective soil erosion mitigation. Even though the system’s P depletion due to organic P management is relatively low in Africa (−2.2 kg ha−1 yr−1) compared to a global average (−5.2 kg ha−1 yr−1), the high overall P losses are unlikely to be covered neither from a mitigated and more sustainable organic P management nor from increased chemical fertilizer input. P fluxes due to organic P management are calculated here as the sum of manure and residue input minus plant uptake (which results in biomass export in arable systems with the exception of residues left on the field). The overall sum of plant uptake is likely to increase with increased need for food and feed parallel to a predicted population and livestock growth in Africa in the future. Many soils in sub-Saharan Africa have already been characterized as deficient for levels of plant-available P for the last decades53. Manure and residue input is simultaneously in demand in Africa today (shortage of biomass in general, low animal production and even if there is manure available, there are no means to transport it to where it is needed), which results in the recommendations of an integrated farm management with combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers54,55,56. With the inorganic P fertilizers becoming increasingly scarce, the depletion due to organic P management can be expected to increase in Africa in the future. Simultaneously, today’s prices for chemical fertilizer can already be 2–6 times more expensive for a farmer in Africa than in Europe due to higher transport and storage costs3, even though Africa itself has the highest geological P deposits in the world (according to today’s estimates 80% of the global geological P deposits are located in Morocco and the Western Sarah8). As such, and if the political situation does not change dramatically (e.g., that the P supplies are marketed within Africa instead of being exported to US, Europe and China), the only realistic means of reducing P depletion of African soils today, and in the future, is to drastically reduce soil erosion.

We recognize that the values calculated in Table 1 and Fig. 4 are gross estimates over large scales and that spatial context and scale, especially on the African continent is important. P deficiency is a country, district, farm and soil specific issue in Africa, for example parts of east Africa and the Sahel have substantial deficiencies57. In sub Saharan Africa ~40% of soils are considered to have low nutrient reserves (<10% weatherable minerals) and soil degradation is enhancing the deficiencies58. Erosion control is important, but is only part of the solution, which needs to be multifaceted. Omuto and Vargas59 assessed total soil erosion based on field measurements in Malawi to have increased ~10% between 2010 (26 t ha−1 yr−1) and 2017 (30 t ha−1 yr−1, note that erosion rates from rill and interill erosion only in our modeled assessments for Malawi based on Borrelli et al.32 are 19 t ha−1 yr−1). Surveys of farmers indicated that 45% were not investing in soil erosion control and many of these were in areas where there was a high level of need. Moreover, farmers recognized that the lack of implementation of sustainable land management practices was a main reason for high erosion rates, over and above the fact that the soils are often vulnerable and fragile. Hence, erosion control offers part of the solution.

Attempts at increasing nutrient status in Malawi since 2010 have, through blanket mineral fertilizer recommendations, not only yielded significantly higher production transforming the country into a food-exporting nation, but also led to soil acidification in many districts59. As such, in addition to soil erosion control integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) is required that combines using mineral fertiliser and organics as well as growing legumes (leguminous trees and/or cover crops)57. Even though leguminous trees offer the potential to access nutrients deep in the subsoil and deposit them to the surface via litter fall, the time delay required to implement such a system acted as a barrier to adoption, with farmers having to forgo one crop57. In addition, the low P status of soils in many African regions57 means that recycling of organic materials is insufficient to boost yields, hence the need for mineral fertiliser. Even though leguminous plants will primarily improve N and not P status of soils, a recent review on leguminous crops found that grain legumes can access less accessible forms of P under P-deficient conditions (through the release of root exudates; access to more of the labile P through a finer root architecture, and enhanced associations with mycorrhiza)60. Hence integrated, region and soil specific management options are required and these complexities have to be held in mind when interpreting our continental scale figures, which might help provide global context for action. While the complexities of P management are well documented and discussed57,58,59,60 we would like to draw the attention to mitigating soil erosion as one important part towards decreasing malnutrition in Africa.

With high soil depletion rates due to erosion of 8.9 kg ha−1 yr−1 in South America and losses due to organic P management of 8.7 kg ha−1 yr−1 the P balance of land under arable use results in a negative balance of −6.1 kg ha−1 yr−1 in spite of the current high chemical fertilizer input of 11.4 kg ha−1 yr−1 (Table 1). As South America has no notable geological P deposits, continuing high or even increasing fertilizer application to balance high soil P losses seems unrealistic in the future (and would also be unacceptable from an ecological perspective as long as soil erosion rates and thus P output to fresh and ocean waters is not substantially reduced). However, with a much higher continental biomass production capacity compared to Africa, many regions in South America might be able to decrease P losses due to improved organic P management (e.g., by generally applying conservation agriculture, organic and/or other sustainable farming practices61) and/or increasing use of animal waste or human excreta1, or applying management systems with increased use of residue input. Nevertheless, in the long-term a reduction of P losses due to mitigating soil erosion (e.g., conservation agriculture, mulching, increased vegetation cover, intercropping, topography adapted land management) will be the most efficient way and will simultaneously increase soil health, the general nutrient status of soils and water retention capacity as well as decreasing the ecologically negative impact on fresh and ocean waters due to high P input and accompanied eutrophication and hypoxia.

Average P loss due to soil erosion from European croplands is, together with Australia, the smallest of all continents (1.2 and 0.9 kg ha−1 yr−1 for Europe and Australia, respectively; Table 1). Nevertheless, the overall P losses from agricultural systems in Europe equal losses due to soil erosion (Table 1), and especially Central and Eastern European countries (NEU11) clearly have a negative P balance.

Csatho and Radimszky62 in discussing land use and management within the EU argue that the negative P balance and worsening P status in Central- and Eastern European countries is in sharp contrast to past practices in the former EU15 countries, where strong positive P balances and oversupply of P led to environmental and ecological threats. While there is evidence that the level of oversupply in the previous EU15 countries had been falling in the early 1990s due to declining trends in mineral fertilizer use63, worsening levels of P undersupply (partly due to the post 1990s rapid decline in fertilizer application) may result in increasingly low yields and in economic and agronomic problems in central and eastern European countries62. Even though the central and eastern European countries (NEU11) have lower P loss due to soil erosion compared to the former EU15 (1.2 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 2.1 kg ha−1 yr−1 for the NEU11 compared to EU15, respectively), the overall P balance is nearly balanced in the former EU15 (0.4 kg ha−1 yr−1) due to considerably higher chemical fertilizer input in the western countries compared to the eastern NEU11 (negative balance thus overall soil depletion of −4.3 kg ha−1 yr−1). As such, there might be a concern of P deficiency and nutrient depletion in the NEU11 in the future, in spite of comparably lower erosional P losses from soils to waters. With no major geological P deposits in Europe8, eastern and western European countries will both be confronted with a harsh political and economic struggle for P fertilizers in the future, with both regions being at the higher end of negative P balances without the addition of chemical fertilizer (−14 and −9.5 kg ha−1 yr−1 for EU15 and NEU11, respectively; Table 1).

For Asia, China certainly stands out in having extensive programs to save and re-cycle P (e.g., separating human excreta and urine, recovery from sewage sludge, sludge ash and the fertilizer industry64). Simultaneously Chinese soils experience the highest chemical fertilizer consumption resulting in a nearly balanced P budget (−0.4 kg ha−1 yr−1). With having the highest losses of P due to soil erosion by water (12.3 kg ha−1 yr−1 with only considering rill and interrill erosion, Table 1), a significant reduction in soil erosion rates would contribute tremendously to the national struggle to save P.

Even though P demand is stagnating in some regions (mostly Europe, North America and Australia), today overall demand is nevertheless increasing globally due to population growth, intensification of agriculture and a shift from vegetarian to meat based diet3,12. It has been suggested, that a 50% reduction in food and feed waste combined with a 50% reduction in production and consumption of animal products, will allow a 100% conversion to organic agriculture, thus fostering sustainable agriculture and minimizing agricultural production related problems such as greenhouse gas production, biodiversity loss, eutrophication of waters and eco-toxicological related issues65. However, the switch to 100% organic production globally would only be possible if rock phosphate was used as a mineral P-fertilizer in organic agriculture with a similar magnitude as it is used today in conventional agriculture65.

To conclude, because P supply from geological deposits cannot be increased but phosphorus resources will be increasingly limited in the future globally, reducing soil erosion might be a crucial if not the most important management option to (i) allow decreased fertilizer application and thus save some of the precious P resources today, (ii) stop continuous depletion of eastern European and African soil P storages and (iii) reduce impact to fresh and ocean waters to counteract eutrophication and hypoxia. We would like to point out that RUSLE based erosion rates as the basis to calculate P loss due to erosion only consider rill and inter-rill erosion processes by water, and do not consider erosion processes due to tillage, gullies or landslides. As such, our P loss assessments can be expected to be conservative estimates. Measures to reduce soil erosion will be dependent on region specific characteristics of climate, topography, soils and harvesting aims and will be dependent on economic and topographic feasibility of management options. Adequate and adapted erosion control might be one, or a combination of measures such as (i) no tillage or low tillage, (ii) maintenance of a permanent soil cover achieved by increased vegetation especially cover crops, diversification of plant species, mulching, and/or intercropping, as well as (iii) topography adapted land management (e.g., terracing, strip cropping and contour farming)66,67. Especially a combination of sustainable practices could make a serious impact on reducing erosion and the associated P losses in the most vulnerable countries, leading to positive agricultural and environmental outcomes.

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