WHAT ARE ENZYMES:
Living cells synthesized the enzymes; these are the complex molecules that speed up the reaction related to life. They are biodegradable and non-toxic to the consumer. By using the large biotechnology amount of the enzymes can be produced. For the benefit of humanity, enzyme technology isolates, create, and purify a large amount of the enzymes. For the production of more beneficial and efficient enzymes, recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering are involved. The biotechnology industry plants its essential part in the commercial production of the enzymes. Enzymes are used in the preservation, leather industry, washing powders, food production, food processing, medical uses, paper industry, and enhancement of medical and scientific research also for the improvement of the environment. The majority of the industrially produced enzymes are beneficial related to detergents (35%), leather (3)%, food (45%).
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF ENZYMES:
First enzymes were produced in the United State in 1896 name as taka-diastase (fungal-amylase), it was used to treat the digestive disorders and consider as the pharmaceutical agent. In 1905 animals organ was used as the source of protease enzymes for the leather softening purposes. For laundry purposes, the enzymes used in 1915 but due to the allergic reactions in the human, it can not proceed. By using the wide range of the biological sources the commercially enzymes can be produced, 80% of them are the microbial resources. Organisms and their contribution to the production of the enzymes can be given below: Bacteria 24%. Fungi 60%. Streptomyces 2%. Yeast 4%/ Higher plants 4%. Higher animals 6%. Animals and plants sources play there an essential role in the production of the enzymes. Enzymes like the lipases, proteases, etc animal and plant organs are very good sources for them. From the eggs, the enzyme’s lysozymes are obtained. Some plants are excellent sources for the papaya enzymes-papain, bromelain (pineapple), and certain enzymes.
LIMITATIONS OF ENZYMES THAT ARE MANUFACTURE FORM THE ANIMAL AND PLANT SOURCES:
Many of the drawbacks are there when we produce enzymes from the animals and the plant sources, there is a broad variation in a distribution and the quantities are limited. Important limitations include the cost factor, isolation, and purification of the enzymes. There is a heavy risk of a contaminant in the extraction of the industrial enzymes, that is why we mostly preferred the microbial production of the enzymes.
PRODUCTION OF THE ENZYMES FROM THE MAMMALIAN CELL CULTURE:
There is a probability of producing the enzyme form the mammalian cell cultures, but producing enzyme in the mammalian culture is not preferable due to there cost factor is high. Certain therapeutic enzymes like tissue plasminogen activator, they are produced in the mammalian culture.
PRODUCTION OF THE ENZYMES FROM THE MICROBIAL SOURCES:
The most beneficial source of commercial production of the enzymes in the microorganisms, under suitable growth conditions they are producing so many amounts of the enzymes. By using the media that is affordable the microorganisms can be cultivated and the production of the enzymes can take place in a very small period. To enhance the production of the desired enzymes the genetic engineering is used. Various kinds of bacteria, fungi, and yeasts are used for this purpose.
COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF THE ENZYMES:
Selection of the Microorganisms:
While selecting the microbe the most important consideration is the production of the desired product in the large quantity however other metabolites are produced as the minimal one. First, the organism is selected then strain improvement can be done by the UV rays and mutagens methods. In the liquid medium, the inoculum will be prepared from the selected organisms. Medium formulation: The medium that is selected should contain all the necessary nutrients which regulate microbe growth. Some of the common substrates that are used are yeast extract, corn steep liquor, and whey, etc. The pH should be optimal to regulate microbe growth.
Production of the desired product by batch and continuous fermentation:
For the industrial production of the enzymes, solid-substrate fermentation is used. Solid- substrate fermentation is used for the production of the fungal enzymes such as proteases, pectinases, cellulases, and amylases. By using the continuous and the batch sterilization techniques medium can be sterilized. Anti-foaming agents are added to avoid the foaming in the process. All the conditions should be optimal for enhancing the production of the desired product. The Bio-reactor system should be sterilized before proceeding with the fermentation process. Fermentation duration is in between 2-7 days. Many of the other metabolites along with the enzymes will be produced so we have to purify the product. Recovery and purification of the enzymes: A desired product that is produced is maybe intracellular and extracellular. Depending upon the condition the industrial enzyme may be highly purified. Downstream processing that is used for the purification of the enzymes involved several steps and it will depend upon the nature of the enzymes and the degree of its purity. The extracellular enzyme that are present in the broth their recovery is so much easy, intracellular enzymes required the special techniques for the cell disruption. Removal of cell debris is done in the intracellular by using centrifugation. Removal of nucleic acid is done by using polyamines, streptomycin, etc. Enzymes can be participated by using different salts and organic solvents. Using the ethylene glycol liquid-liquid partition is done. In the last for the separation of the enzymes chromatography technique is used. Ion exchange, size exclusion, and dye ligand chromatography are mostly used. The drying and packaging of the enzymes can be done by using the freeze dryers. [2,3] By using genetic engineering, protein engineering, and cloning strategies the production of the enzyme is increased. 1. Lipase is found in the fungi, it is very effective for removing the fat in the fabrics. But this organism is not considered as good for the production of these enzymes as it synthesizes in a very low level. Now the large scale of this enzyme is possible, it is very stable and it is resistant to the protease enzyme. This all properties of the enzymes make it possible as a good candidate used in the washing and fabrics. 2. Chymosin is an enzyme that is used in the making of the cheese. From the young calves’ stomach it is mostly obtained. But it is present in the very small scale, the gene that is involved in the synthesis is used for the large scale production of the cheese. 
Enzymes are used in the food and treatment so they are consist of high purity and must meet all the specific criteria of the health and safety regulations. Enzymes should be safe and they can be free from all kinds of toxic material so humans can safely take them. Enzymes production can be enhanced by using different biotechnology techniques such as genetic and protein engineering etc.
Living cells synthesized the enzymes, these are the complex molecules that speed up the reaction related to life. They are biodegradable and non-toxic to the consumer. By using the biotechnology large amount of the enzymes can be produced. For the benefit of the human mankind enzyme technology isolate, produce, and purify a large amount of the enzymes. For the production of more beneficial and efficient enzymes, recombinant DNA technology and protein engineering are involved. The biotechnology industry implants its essential part in the commercial production of the enzymes. Enzymes are used in the preservation, leather industry, washing powders, food production, food processing, medical uses, paper industry, and enhancement of medical and scientific research also for the improvement of the environment.
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