AbstractGathering data for cascading seismic and tsunami events is difficult due to space constraints in existing experimental facilities, the application of scaling laws for both the fluid and structure, and limitations of computational software in simulating multiple hazards within the same analysis. To overcome these limitations, this study demonstrates the feasibility of a real-time hybrid simulation testing method to enhance wave–structure interaction simulations. While real-time hybrid simulations have been utilized for structures subjected to seismic events for decades, considerations for hybrid testing make its application to hydrodynamic problems challenging, including testing in wet or submersible environments and satisfying similitude time constraints. A cylindrical bridge pier specimen connected to a three-dimensional numerical bridge model was subjected to cascading seismic and tsunami events deploying a three-loop hardware architecture for real-time hybrid simulation. The domain was partitioned such that the wave–structure interaction on the bridge pier was physically tested in a wave flume and coupled to a numerical model of the remaining bridge components. To simulate existing damage, seismic loading was numerically applied to the hybrid model prior to the physical wave loading. Results illustrate that this simulation approach is feasible for future investigations using real-time hybrid simulation.

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