CIVIL ENGINEERING 365 ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING



AbstractThe increasing population growth, urbanization, climate change, mismanagement of water resources, and poorly planned water distribution systems with negligible integration with spatial planning are increasing water stress in many countries across the globe. Even though optimization of water distribution systems and integrated water management practices are being implemented in many cities and regions, there is a lack of an integrated study considering the urban water supply system, planning, and management. This paper identifies the various parameters and indicators to be considered along with the relevant tools and techniques for optimizing water resources, optimum water resource allocation, and integrated water supply and management. During the research, 116 indicators were identified through a literature review, followed by a three-round Delphi survey to attain consensus from 30 experts. At the end of the third round, 72 indicators achieved maximum consensus among the experts (W=0.741). The identified indicators can be used for developing an integrated model for urban water supply systems, planning, and management.Practical ApplicationsThe changing climate, increasing urbanization, and rampant population growth are creating multiple challenges of water quality, water scarcity, floods, and droughts all over the globe. For present and future water security, it is essential to integrate the three aspects of urban waters, i.e., water supply systems or the different water resources like surface water, groundwater, recycled water, reclaimed water, and rainwater; water supply planning, which considers the planning for the present and future water demand, a contingency plan in case of emergency and water distribution system integrating the topography and spatial planning of a city or region; and water supply management, which addresses the allocation, distribution, and management of water resources along with recycling and reuse of wastewater. For the integration of these three aspects, an integrated model needs to be developed addressing all these together. In this paper, different indicators that should be considered for the integrated model have been derived through expert opinions followed by an empirical analysis to finalize the list of indicators.



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