AbstractTransportation agencies have been facing the challenge of shrinking budgets and reductions in the size of inspection staff with an increased number of construction projects over the last decade. For portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) projects, a large number of quality assurance (QA) tests are typically conducted to ensure the quality of roadway construction is met. Yet, relatively little research has focused on identifying and prioritizing PCCP tests that matter in terms of design service life performance. To address this gap, a risk-based framework was developed. A core list of 10 PCCP material tests was identified through a comprehensive literature review and survey. These tests were then evaluated to determine the risk levels and sampling frequencies. The risk level was determined using a four-point scale of both probabilities (high, moderate, low, and rare) and consequences (critical, major, minor, and contractual). Based on the risk rating system, four tiers of material tests were proposed. A case study example was presented to illustrate and validate the framework. The result showed that there is one QA test in Tier 1, three QA tests in Tier 2, five QA tests in Tier 3, and one QA test in Tier 4. The finding of this study showed that QA tests with high-risk levels require more sampling and testing frequency than those with lower risk levels. This study adds value to the body of knowledge by providing risk-based guidance on evaluating and determining QA test frequencies for PCCP. This study also helps transportation agencies prioritize QA tests and optimize sampling and testing of PCCP construction projects.