CIVIL ENGINEERING 365 ALL ABOUT CIVIL ENGINEERING



AbstractHeavy glulam timber framed structures are facing a growing inadequacy in resisting lateral actions from earthquakes and winds due to the increasing building heights. This paper presents the experimental and numerical analysis results on the hysteretic behavior of newly developed carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) confined timber-steel buckling-restrained bracings and the lateral performance of bolted glulam timber frames with such bracings. Ten timber-steel bracings and four frames with different bracing provisions were tested via reversed cyclic lateral loading. A finite-element method based model was developed, verified, and used for parametric studies. The bracing test results indicated that the design requirements for ordinary buckling restrained bracings on the confinement ratio and the transverse bulging force are adequate for the proposed timber-steel bracings. A confinement ratio no less than 4.6 is suggested. Compared to an otherwise similar bare frame, two frames with the proposed bracings were found to be 132% and 176% higher in the peak loads, more than 10 times higher in the elastic stiffness, 40% and 43% higher in ductility ratio, and on average 106% higher in the equivalent viscous damping ratio. The two frames also exhibited higher stiffness and energy dissipation than a frame braced by timber bracings, which are prone to buckling failure. Parametric studies indicated that the secant stiffness and the damping ratio of the frames at small drift can be substantially affected by the bolt slippage of the bracing-frame connections. The increased lateral stiffness ratio will lead to increase in the peak load and stiffness, but the equivalent viscous damping ratio remains nearly constant for lateral stiffness ratios larger than 2.5. The frame stiffness and peak load increase with increased rotational stiffness of the beam-column connections while the equivalent viscous damping ratio decreases.



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