AbstractBased on an increasing amount of attention paid to explore why building information modeling (BIM) application levels are so low and what are the obstacles that hinder the further application of BIM, a range of existing studies began to explore BIM from different research perspectives. However, these studies only focus on a single perspective to explore this issue in isolation, ignoring the correlation between them. Therefore, by reviewing the hot perspectives of in-depth discussion on this issue in the existing literature, the present study focuses on exploring the quantitative relationships between BIM definition, BIM capability maturity, integrated project delivery (IPD), BIM diffusion, and moral hazard. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted using data from 295 questionnaires to empirically verify our research model. The results show that the perfection of BIM technology, BIM process, and BIM policy have a positive association with BIM capability maturity. In addition, these three factors can be used as mediating variables to affect the relationship between the other two factors and BIM capability maturity. Moreover, BIM capability maturity has a positive impact on the realization of IPD. Specifically, BIM diffusion was found to positively moderate the relationship between BIM capability maturity and the realization of IPD, while moral hazard plays a negatively moderating role. The findings of this research contribute to lay a theoretical foundation for discussing how to improve BIM capability maturity from the perspective of BIM definition, as well as the influence of BIM capability maturity and BIM-related promotion and hindrance factors on IPD, an ideal project transaction model. Understanding these in-depth underlying interrelations can contribute to fully realizing the real implementation of BIM and improve the acceptance of IPD, and ultimately realize the transformation and upgrading of the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operations industry and the construction of smart cities.

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