AbstractOpen-graded asphalt friction course (OGAFC) is an asphalt course constructed over a dense-graded and impermeable surface to allow quick drainage of surface water runoff and enable reduction of hydroplaning and splash and spray. OGAFC mixtures demand high-quality aggregates to perform the intended functions while transferring traffic loads to the underlying layer. Steel slag is a byproduct generated during steel production, and large quantities are unutilized in steel-producing countries, including India. This study evaluated the mechanical performance properties of OGAFC mixtures using basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag as replacement for coarse aggregates at percentages of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. OGAFC mixtures with two types of modified asphalt binders and five percentage replacements of coarse natural aggregates with BOF steel slag were fabricated. The mechanical performance of the OGAFC mixtures was evaluated in terms of rutting resistance (dynamic creep test and Hamburg wheel tracking device test), cracking potential (indirect tensile strength, cracking tolerance index, and semicircular bending test), fatigue life (indirect tensile fatigue test), and modulus properties (indirect tensile stiffness modulus and resilient modulus). The test results indicated that the use of BOF steel slag not only improved the performance of OGAFC mixtures in terms of rutting resistance, cracking potential, and modulus properties, but also increased the fatigue life of the OGAFC mixes. OGAFC mixes up to 100% BOF steel slag content exhibited superior performance compared with the mixtures with natural aggregates.