AbstractThe purpose of this study is to determine the relevance of the physiological sensors in a virtual construction scenario to monitor the laborers’ physiological behaviors to improve the safety level at the site. This research particularly aims to monitor laborers’ physiological reactions in virtual construction scenarios. Furthermore, this study explores the applicability of physiological sensors in reducing injuries and claim-related disputes. Intending to leverage affective sensing technology in a construction scenario, the authors conducted experiments with galvanic skin response (GSR) and blood volume pulse (BVP) in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation developed based on a real construction site. The GSR and BVP results obtained from the experiment were analyzed to (1) assess the feasibility of using a virtual environment to generate real emotions, (2) examine the relationship between real physiological responses and the questionnaires used to ask participants about their experience, and (3) identify the factors that affect peoples’ emotional reactions in a virtual environment. Subjects of the experimental group exhibited incoherent responses, as expected in human subjects–involved experiments. Based on the various reasons for this incoherence obtained from the questionnaire part of the experiment, the authors identified the potential in research for developing training methods concerning laborers’ physiological response capability.