AbstractIn this paper, a novel method is proposed based on a windowed one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D CNN) for multiclass damage identification using vibration responses of a full-scale bridge. The measured data are first augmented by extracting samples of windows of raw acceleration time series to alleviate the problem of a limited training data set. 1D CNN is developed to classify the windowed time series into multiple damage classes. The damage is quantified using the predicted class probabilities, and the damage is localized if the predicted class is equal to the assigned damage class, exceeding a threshold associated with majority voting. The proposed network is optimally tuned with respect to various hyperparameters such as window size and random initialization of weights to achieve the best classification performance using a global 1D CNN model. The proposed method is validated using a benchmark bridge data for multiclass classification for two different damage scenarios, namely, pier settlement and rupture of tendons, under the various extents of damage. The damage identification is carried out on various bridge components to collectively identify the structural component with a damaged signature. The results show that the proposed windowed 1D CNN method achieves an accuracy of 97%, and performs well with different types of damage.