AbstractExternally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) laminates are widely used in the retrofitting and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete (RC) columns because they can increase the axial and bending moment capacities of these columns through a confinement mechanism. The confinement produced by FRP laminates acts in addition to that exerted by the internal transverse steel, although the latter is often neglected in current design standards and guidelines. In this study, a recently developed FRP-and-steel-confined concrete constitutive model was employed to numerically investigate the axial force–bending moment interaction for FRP-confined RC columns modeled using finite-element (FE) analysis. The proposed model was first validated against experimental data available in the literature and then used to quantify, through an extensive parametric study, the effects of transverse steel confinement, FRP strength, FRP stiffness, FRP reinforcement ratio, column diameter, concrete compressive strength, and load eccentricity ratio on the strength of FRP-confined RC columns subject to combined axial compression and bending moment. It was found that the internal steel confinement can substantially enhance the strength of these columns, especially for low concrete compressive strengths, large cross sections, and small eccentricities. When design code provisions limiting concrete and FRP deformations were considered for eccentrically loaded columns, the contribution of the steel confinement increased for increasing FRP reinforcement ratio. Based on the parametric study results, this investigation proposed an extension to eccentric axial compression of two relative confinement coefficients, which were previously developed to describe the contribution of transverse steel confinement to the peak strength of FRP-confined RC columns subject to pure compression.