AbstractEarthquake-induced soil liquefaction can cause soil settlement around piles, resulting in drag load and pile settlement after shaking stops. Estimating the axial load distribution and pile settlement is important for designing and evaluating the performance of axially loaded piles in liquefiable soils. Commonly used neutral plane solution methods model the liquefiable layer as an equivalent consolidating clay layer without considering the sequencing and pattern of excess pore pressure dissipation and soil settlement. Moreover, changes in the pile shaft and the tip resistance due to excess pore pressures are ignored. A TzQzLiq numerical model was developed using the existing TzLiq material and the new QzLiq material for modeling liquefaction-induced downdrag on piles. The model accounts for the change in the pile’s shaft and tip capacity as free-field excess pore pressures develop or dissipate in soil. The developed numerical model was validated against data from a series of large centrifuge model tests, and the procedure for obtaining the necessary information and data from those is described. Additionally, a sensitivity study on TzLiq and QzLiq material properties was performed to study their effect on the developed drag load and pile settlement. Analysis results show that the proposed numerical model can reasonably predict the time histories of axial load distribution and settlement of axially loaded piles in liquefiable soils both during and postshaking.

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