AbstractThe performance of the recycled asphalt pavement is directly influenced by the content of the used regenerant (i.e., rejuvenator and/or unaged asphalt binder). The goal of this study is to optimize regenerant content of aged styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt binder based on high-temperature creep and low-temperature relaxation performance tests. Initially, penetration, ductility, softening point, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR), and bending beam rheometer (BBR) tests were carried out to investigate the rheological behavior of the aged SBS modified binder (AMB) regenerated with different contents of the rejuvenator and unaged SBS modified binder (UMB). A method is proposed, based on the rheological behavior of the regenerated AMB, to determine the optimum contents of the regenerants (i.e., rejuvenator and UMB). To reach a successful trade-off between low- and high-temperature properties of the regenerated AMB, the relaxation rate VR and nonrecoverable creep compliance J3.2 (at 3.2 kPa) were selected as the evaluation indices to settle the optimum contents of the rejuvenator and UMB. The results showed that the ductility of regenerated AMB is on par with the UMB when the contents of rejuvenator and UMB are 4% and 70%, respectively. The nonrecoverable creep compliance and relaxation rate of the regenerated AMB tended to increase with the increase in the content of the rejuvenator and UMB, whereas the recovery rate and relaxation modulus decreased. It indicated that the low-temperature performance increased while the high-temperature performance was adversely affected by the increase in the content of the regenerants. The VR and J3.2 of the regenerated AMB were comparable to those of unaged state, when the contents of the rejuvenator and UMB in the aged binder were 5% and 70%, respectively. It indicated that the high-temperature creep and low-temperature relaxation performance of the AMB reach a balance.